The University of Florida College of Law

Seminar:

Introduction to the Civil Code

Fall 1998

Professor Pedro A. Malavet

Statutory Supplement

Introductory Note:

The legal supplement for my seminar is the Puerto Rico Civil Code. I have chosen it because it is easily available on-line in English. This is a much cheaper and quite adequate alternative to the translations of the French or Spanish codes.

The Puerto Rico code is substantially modeled after the Spanish Civil Code, which itself was heavily influenced by the French Civil Code. During the semester, I will hand out a table of equivalence for the Puerto Rico Code, the Spanish Civil Code and Civil Code of Louisiana.

Here, I post only the table of contents of the code, in order to provide you with ideas for paper topics.

--Prof. Malavet
September 1998

The Civil Code of Puerto Rico

(Puerto Rico Laws Annotated Title 31)

Preliminary Subtitle. Preliminary Provisions

  • Chapter 1 The Laws, Their Effects, And The General Rules For Their Application

    § 1 Title

    § 2 Ignorance Of Law

    § 3 Retroactive Effect Of Laws

    § 4 Acts Contrary To Law; Renunciation Of Legal Right

    § 5 Repeal Of Laws

    § 6 Express Or Implied Repeal; Repeal Of Repealing Act

    § 7 Refusal Of Court To Render Decision; Application Of Equity In Absence Of Statute

    § 8 Months, Days, And Nights Defined

    § 9 Law Governing Family Rights And Status Of Persons

    § 10 Personal And Real Property

    § 11 Contracts, Wills, And Other Public Instruments

    § 12 Deficiencies In Special Laws

    § 13 Discrepancy Between Spanish And English Texts

    § 14 Letter Of Law Observed If Free From Ambiguity

    § 15 General And Popular Use Of Words

    § 16 Technical Terms And Phrases

    § 17 Dubious Words

    § 18 Laws Referring To Same Matter

    § 19 Reason, Spirit, And Motives Of Law

    § 20 Laws Declaring Acts Void

    § 21 Distinction Of Laws As Odious Or Favorable

    § 22 Civil Laws Applied Without Distinction

    § 23 Puerto Rico Defined

  • Subtitle 1 Persons

    Part I Distinction Of Persons

    Chapter 11 Natural Persons

    § 81 Personality And Capacity -- Determined By Birth; When Born

    § 82 Extinguished By Death; Restrictions On Civil Capacity

    § 83 Determination Of Priority Of Death

    Chapter 13 Artificial Persons

    § 101 Artificial Persons--Defined

    § 102 Law Governing

    § 103 Civil Status

    § 104 Powers Of Artificial Persons

    § 105 Property Of Extinct Corporations

    Part II Absence

    Chapter 19 Provisional Measures In Case Of Absence

    § 131 Appointment Of Administrator

    § 132 Preference In Appointment

    § 133 Oath Of Administrator

    § 134 Inventory; Security

    § 135 Sale Or Encumbrance Of Property Forbidden; Liability And Compensation Of Administrator

    § 136 Administrator As Legal Representative

    § 137 Termination Of Administration

    § 138 Sale Of Property Ten Years After Disappearance

    § 139 Annual Accounts

    § 140 Final Account

    § 141 Suits Against Absentees

    Chapter 21 Provisional Possession Of Property Of Absentee

    § 151 Provisional Possession By Heirs After Five Years

    § 152 Seven Years In Case Of Power Of Attorney

    § 153 Expiration Of Power Of Attorney

    § 154 Presumption Of Death Of Absentee

    § 155 Action On Petition For Provisional Possession

    § 156 Action Upon Will Of Absentee

    § 157 Universal Heir Preferred

    § 158 Rights Of Husband Or Wife Of Absentee

    § 159 Nature Of Provisional Possession; Security

    § 160 Inventory, Sale, And Investment Of Personal Property

    § 161 Report On Condition Of Real Property

    § 162 Return Of Property To Absentee

    § 163 Alienation Or Encumbrance Of Real Property

    § 164 Declaration That Absentee Presumed Dead

    § 165 Effective Date

    § 166 Discharge Of Securities And Distribution Of Estate

    § 167 Appearance Or Proof Of Existence Of Absentee During Provisional Possession

    § 168 After Absolute Possession

    § 169 Petition For Restitution By Descendants

    § 170 Assertion Of Rights Against Absentee

    Chapter 23 Effects Of Absence Upon Eventual Rights Of Absentee

    § 181 Proof Of Rights Accruing To Person Not Known To Exist

    § 182 Share Of Absentee In Succession

    § 183 Actions Petitioning Inheritance Or Other Rights; Registry Of Real Property

    § 184 Disposition Of Income Or Products Of Estate

    Chapter 25 Effects Of Absence Respecting Marriage

    § 201 Remarriage By Spouse Of Absentee, And By Absentee After Reappearance

    Part III Marriage

    Chapter 29 Nature Of Marriage

    § 221 Definition, Validity, And Dissolution Of Marriage Chapter 31 Requisites Necessary To Contract Marriage

    § 231 Requisites For Validity

    § 232 Capacity--Incapacity To Contract Marriage

    § 232a Time For Contracting New Marriage

    § 233 Impediments To Contract

    § 234 Waiver Of Consanguinity

    § 235 Persons Suffering From Disease -- Marriage Prohibited; Annulment

    § 236 Medical Certificates Required For Marriage Certificate Or License

    § 237 Proof Of Identity Of Applicant For Medical Certificate

    § 238 Penalty For Contracting Marriage

    § 239 Penalty For Issuance Of False Medical Certificate

    § 240 Penalty For Issuance Of Marriage License Without Medical Certificate; Exceptions

    § 241 When Consent Not Valid

    § 242 Consent For Minors

    § 243 Authorization And Celebration Of Marriage Who May Celebrate

    § 244 Application And Examination; Oaths

    § 245 When Marriage Not To Be Celebrated; Minors

    § 246-248 [Omitted.]

    § 247 Record Of Documents

    § 248 Recording Free Of Charge

    § 249 Fees Of Judge Or Justice

    § 250 Penalty For False Declaration

    § 251, 252 [Omitted]

    § 252 Forms For Marriage Certificates

    § 253 Marriage By Mandate Through Special Power Of Attorney

    § 254 Medical Certificate

    § 255 Execution Of Power Of Attorney

    § 256 Contents Of Power Of Attorney

    § 257 Verification Or Approval

    § 258 Power Of Attorney To Be Protocolized And Registered

    § 259 Medical Certificate Of Contracting Party; Marriage License

    § 260 Register Of Such Marriages

    § 261 Revocation Of Mandate

    § 262 Copies Of Law For Armed Forces; Model Forms

    § 263 Proof Of Marriage

    § 264 --Means Of Proof

    § 265 --Contracted In United States Or Foreign Country

    Chapter 33 Rights And Duties Between Married Persons

    § 281 Cohabitation, Fidelity, And Assistance

    § 282 Duties Of Spouses--Protection

    § 283 --Domicile

    § 284 Administrator Of Community Property; Alienation Of Property

    § 285 Separate Estates

    § 286 Representative Of Conjugal Community

    § 287 Repealed. Act July 9, 1985, No. 93, P. 297, Eff. July 9, 1985

    Chapter 35 Dissolution Of Marriage

    § 301 How Dissolution Effected

    Part IV Divorce

    Chapter 39 Causes For Divorce

    § 321 Causes For Divorce

    Chapter 41 Procedure In Action For Divorce

    § 331 Procedure

    Chapter 43 Provisional Measures To Which A Suit For Divorce May Give Occasion

    § 341 Custody Of Children

    § 342 Residence

    § 343 Payment Of Alimony

    § 344 Debts Contracted After Complaint Is Brought

    § 345 Decisions Not Appealable; Amendment

    Chapter 45 Extinction Of The Action For Divorce

    § 361 Reconciliation

    § 362 Rights Of Plaintiff In New Suit

    Chapter 47 Effects Of Divorce

    § 381 Dissolution Of Marriage And Division Of Property

    § 382 Repealed. Act July 20, 1979, No. 129, P. 312, Eff. July 20, 1979

    § 383 Care Of Minor Children After Divorce

    § 384 Rights Of Children

    § 385 Alimony

    Part V Nullity Of Marriage

    Chapter 51 Improperly Contracted Marriage

    § 411 When Marriage Void

    § 412 Right To Bring Action For Annulment

    § 412a Civil Effects Of Annulled Marriage

    Part VI Paternity And Filiation

    Chapter 57 Children Generally

    § 441 Equality Of Rights Of Children

    § 442 Status Of Children

    Chapter 59 Legitimate Children

    § 461 Definition; Proof Against Legitimacy

    § 462 Child Born Within 180 Days After Marriage

    § 463 Child Born Over 300 Days After Dissolution Of Marriage

    § 464 Who Can Dispute Legitimacy

    § 465 Limitation Of Action To Contest Legitimacy

    § 466 Rights Of Legitimate Children

    Chapter 61 Legitimatized Children

    § 481 Children Who May Be Legitimated

    § 482 Legitimation By Marriage Of Parents

    § 483 Rights Of Legitimatized Children

    § 484 Effective Date Of Legitimation

    § 485 Children Dying Prior To Legitimation.

    § 486 Dispute Of Legitimation By Third Parties

    Chapter 63 Illegitimate Children

    § 501 Natural Children--Born After 1942

    § 502 --Born Prior To 1942; Recognition

    § 503 --Proof Of Recognition

    § 504 Recognition Of Natural Child

    § 505 Limitation Of Action For Recognition

    § 506 Rights Of Recognized Natural Child

    § 507 Right Of Illegitimate Children To Support

    § 508 --When Enforceable

    §§ 509-514 Repealed. May 16, 1966, No. 9, P. 125, @ 1, Eff. May 16, 1966.

    Chapter 65 Adoption

    § 531 Qualifications Of Adopter

    § 532 Number Of Adopters; Spouses; Adoption Of Child Of Spouse

    § 533 Parties As Legitimate Child And Parent

    § 534 Rights, Duties, And Obligations Between Adoptee And Natural Family

    § 535 Names Of Adoptee

    § 536 Consent For Adoption

    § 537 Adoption Of Ward By Guardian

    § 538 Adoption Of More Than One Person

    § 539 Adoptions Prior To 1953; Petition To Be Governed By New Provisions

    Part VII Support Relations

    Chapter 71 Rights And Duties To Support

    § 561 Support Defined

    § 562 Persons Obliged To Support Each Other

    § 563 Priority Of Claims For Support

    § 564 Support By Or For Two Or More Persons

    § 565 Amount Of Support

    § 566 Beginning Of Obligation; Time Of Payment

    § 567 Form Of Support

    § 568 End Of Obligation; Waiver, Transfer, Or Set Off

    § 569 Other Causes Ending Obligation

    § 570 Application Of Provisions To Other Cases

    Part VIII Patria Potestas

    Chapter 75 General Provisions

    § 591 Patria Potestas Over Children

    Chapter 77 Effects Of Patria Potestas Upon Persons Of Children

    § 601 Duties And Powers Of Parents

    Chapter 79 Effects Of Patria Potestas Upon Property Of Children

    § 611 Administration Of Property

    § 612 Property Acquired By Labor Of Child Or For Valuable Consideration

    § 613 Property Acquired With Capital Of Parents

    § 614 Property Donated Or Left By Will For Education

    § 615 Obligations Of Parents

    § 616 Alienation Or Encumbrance Of Property Prohibited

    § 617 Appointment Of Person To Defend Interests

    § 618 Acknowledged Or Adopted Children

    § 619 Usufruct In Case Of Divorce

    Chapter 81 Manner In Which Patria Potestas Ends

    § 631 Termination Of Patria Potestas

    § 632 Dissolution Of Marriage

    § 633 Suspension Of Patria Potestas

    § 634 Termination Or Suspension By Court For Misconduct Part IX Tutorship

    Chapter 85 General Provisions

    § 661 Object Of Tutorship

    § 662 Person Subject To Tutorship

    § 663 Single Tutor

    § 664 Renunciation Of Office

    § 665 Care Of Person And Property By Attorneys Or District Attorneys

    § 666 How Tutorship Conferred

    § 667 Registry Of Tutorships

    Chapter 87 Testamentary Tutorships

    § 681 Appointment -- Will Of Parents

    § 682 --Person Leaving Inheritance Or Legacy

    § 683 -- Surviving Father Or Mother

    § 684 Several Tutors For Same Person

    § 684a Order Of Preference

    Chapter 89 Tutorship By Effect Of The Law

    § 701 Tutorship Of Minors--Who May Exercise

    § 702 -- Orphans Or Abandoned And Handicapped Children

    § 703 Tutorship Of Insane And Deaf And Dumb--Court Decree

    § 704 -- Who May Petition For Decree

    § 705 -- Petition By Prosecuting Attorney; Next Friend

    § 706 --Opinion Of Experts And Other Proof

    § 707 -- Declaration Of Incapacity

    § 708 -- Action Against Final Decree

    § 709 --To Whom Tutorship Belongs

    § 710 Tutorship Of Prodigals And Habitual Drunkards -- Decree

    § 711 -- Who May Petition For Decree

    § 712 -- Contest Of Acts Before And After Petition

    § 713 -- To Whom Tutorship Belongs

    § 714 Tutorship Of Those Under Interdiction -- Demand For Care Of Person And Property

    § 715 -- Limitation Of Tutorship; Duties Of Tutor And Wife

    § 716 -- To Whom Tutorship Belongs

    Chapter 91 Dative Tutorships

    § 731 Appointment Of Tutor By Court

    Chapter 93 Persons Not Qualified To Act As Tutors And Their Removal

    § 741 Disqualified Persons

    § 742 Removal From Tutorship

    § 743 Hearing Of Tutor Before Removal

    § 744 Finality Of Decree; Filling Of Vacancy

    § 745 Action Pending Decision On Impediment

    Chapter 95 Security To Be Given For Tutorship

    § 761 Bond Of Tutor

    § 762 Form Of Bond; Other Measures By Court

    § 763 Amount Of Bond

    § 764 Bond Required Before Entering Upon Duties

    § 765 Record Of Mortgage; Deposit Of Security

    § 766 Increase, Decrease, And Cancellation Of Bond

    § 767 Exemption From Giving Bond

    Chapter 97 Exercise Of Tutorship

    § 781 Representation Of Minor, Etc.

    § 782 Duties Of Wards To Tutors

    § 783 Duties Of Tutor

    § 783a Responsibility Of Tutor

    § 784 Credits Of Tutor Against Minor, Renunciation Of

    § 784a Appraisal Of Property -- Procedure

    § 784b -- Property Not Included

    § 785 Allowance For Support

    § 786 Acts Requiring Authorization Of Court

    § 787 Liability Of Tutor For Interest On Capital

    § 788 Procedure For Authorization Of Court

    § 789 Prohibited Acts

    § 790 Right To Remuneration

    § 791 Termination Of Tutorship

    Chapter 99 Accounts Of Tutorship

    § 801 Annual Accounts Of Tutors

    § 802 General Account Of Replaced Tutor

    § 803 Account Upon Termination Of Tutorship

    § 804 Term For Approval Of Accounts

    § 805 Necessary Vouchers

    § 806 Expense Of Rendering Accounts

    § 807 Agreements With Tutor

    § 808 Interest On Balance Of Accounts

    § 809 Limitation Of Actions

    Chapter 101 Recording Of Tutorships

    § 821 Books In Superior Court

    § 822 Care Of Books; Free Entries

    § 823 Contents Of Entries

    § 824 Note As To Rendition Of Accounts

    § 825 Examination Of Registries

    Chapter 103 Special Guardians For Incapacitated Persons Who Receive Aid

    § 841 Appointment By District Court

    § 842 Application; Appointment; Acceptance

    § 843 Qualifications Of Special Guardians

    § 844 Term Of Office; Reports Of Administration

    § 845 Proceedings Free Of Fees

    § 846 Definition

    § 847 Proceedings In Superior Court

    Chapter 105 Veterans' Guardianship

    § 861 Definitions

    § 862 Appointment Of Guardian Required By Federal Law Or Regulation

    § 863 Petition For Appointment Of Guardian

    § 864 Evidence Of Necessity For Appointment -- Minor Ward

    § 865 -- Mentally Incompetent Ward

    § 866 Notice Of Filing Of Petition

    § 867 Determination That Appointment Is Proper; Bond Of Guardian

    § 868 Acceptance; Oath Of Office; Recording; Letters Of Tutorship

    § 869 Number Of Wards Limited

    § 870 Accounts; Procedure On Accounts, Petitions, Or Other Pleadings

    § 871 Removal For Failure To Account

    § 872 Compensation

    § 873 Investment Of Funds

    § 874 Support Of Persons Other Than Ward

    § 875 Copies Of Public Records Without Charge

    § 876 Commitment To Veterans' Administration Hospital

    § 877 Discharge Of Guardian Upon Termination Of Disability Of Ward

    § 878 Appearance Of Chief Attorney Of Veterans' Administration In Legal Proceedings

    § 879 Application Of Other Provisions

    Part X Emancipation And Majority

    Chapter 107 General Provisions

    § 901 Kinds Of Emancipation

    Chapter 109 Emancipation By Grant Of Father Or Mother Exercising Patria Potestas

    § 911 Emancipation By Father Or Mother; Declaration; Recording

    § 912 Emancipation By Order Of Court

    § 913 Emancipation Against Will Of Parents

    § 914 Accounts Of Tutorship

    § 915 Capacities Of Emancipated Minor

    § 916 Emancipation Not Revocable

    Chapter 111 Emancipation By Marriage

    § 931 Emancipation By Marriage; Restrictions As To Real Property And Loans

    § 932 Appearance In Court

    § 933 Demand For Accounts Of Tutorship

    Chapter 113 Judicial Emancipation

    § 951 Emancipation Of Orphan By Judicial Concession

    § 952 Opposition Of Tutor

    § 953 Requirements

    § 954 Records Of Emancipation

    § 955 Scope Of Decree Of Emancipation

    Chapter 115 Majority

    § 971 Age Of Majority; Effects

    Part XI Registry Of Civil Status

    Chapter 119 Generally

    § 981 Acts Relating To Civil Status

    § 982 Contents Of Registry

    § 983 Evidence Of Civil Status

    § 984 Record Of Birth

    Subtitle 2 Property Ownership And Its Modifications

    Part I Classification Of Property

    Chapter 127 General Principles

    § 1021 Property And Things Defined

    § 1022 Common Or Public; Ownership Of

    § 1023 Common Things Defined

    § 1024 Things Of Public Domain

    § 1025 Property Of Public Use; Common Property

    § 1026 Property Of Private Ownership

    § 1027 Corporeal And Incorporeal Things

    § 1028 Incorporeal Things As Movables Or Immovables

    § 1029 Things Divided Into Movables And Immovables

    Chapter 129 Immovables

    § 1041 Immovables Defined

    § 1042 Immovables By Nature, Destination, Or Object

    § 1043 What Are Immovables

    § 1044 Incorporeal Things Considered Immovables

    Chapter 131 Movables

    § 1061 Movables Defined

    § 1062 Movables By Nature Or By Disposition Of Law

    § 1063 Movables By Nature

    § 1064 Movables By Disposition Of Law

    § 1065 Other Things Considered Movables

    § 1066 Movables As Consumable Or Nonconsumable

    § 1067 Things Corporeal Or Incorporeal Considered Movables

    § 1068 Materials From Demolition Or For Erection Or Repairs Of Buildings

    Chapter 133 Property Considered In Relation To Persons To Whom It Belongs

    § 1081 Things In Relation To Their Possessors

    § 1082 Things Not Susceptible Of Ownership

    § 1083 Things Susceptible Of Ownership

    § 1084 Disposal Or Alienation Of Property

    § 1085 Provisions Common To The Three Preceding Chapters -- Scope Of Terms

    § 1086 -- Furniture Defined

    § 1087 -- When Money, Stocks, Credits, Etc., Are Excluded From Transfer

    Part II Ownership

    Chapter 137 Ownership Generally

    § 1111 Ownership Defined; Rights Conferred

    § 1112 Kinds Of Ownership

    § 1113 Deprivation Of Ownership; Just Compensation

    § 1114 Ownership Vested In Person With Immediate Dominion

    § 1115 Rights Owner Of Parcel Of Ground

    § 1116 Hidden Treasures

    § 1117 Treasure Defined

    Chapter 139 The Right Of Accession

    Subchapter I Generally

    § 1131 Right Of Accession Inherent In Ownership

    Subchapter II Right Of Accession With Respect To What Is Produced By Property

    § 1141 Products Of Property

    § 1142 Natural, Cultivated, And Civil Fruits Defined

    § 1143 Expense Of Production, Etc.

    § 1144 What Considered Natural Or Cultivated Fruits

    § 1145 Fruits Do Not Belong To Simple Possessor

    § 1146 Bona Fide Possessor Defined

    Subchapter III Right Of Accession With Respect To Immovables

    § 1161 Buildings And Plantings On Another's Land

    § 1162 Works And Plantings Presumed Made By Owner

    § 1163 Constructions With Another's Material

    § 1164 Rights Of Owner Of Land Built Upon In Good Faith

    § 1165 Bad Faith Of Builder

    § 1166 --Demolition Of Work And Restoration To Former Condition

    § 1167 Bad Faith Of Both Parties

    § 1168 Materials Belonging To Third Person

    § 1169 Augmentation Of River Banks

    § 1170 Land Adjacent To Ponds And Lakes

    § 1171 Transfer Of Land By Current

    § 1172 Trees Carried Away By Current

    § 1173 River Leaving Channel

    § 1174 New Bed Of Navigable River

    § 1175 Islands Formed Through Descending Alluviums

    § 1176 Current Of River Dividing Into Branches

    Subchapter IV Right Of Accession With Respect To Movables

    § 1191 Union Of Movable Things Belonging To Different Owners

    § 1192 Principal Thing Defined

    § 1193 Determination By Value Or Volume; Paintings, Etc.

    § 1194 Separation Of United Things

    § 1195 Union In Bad Faith

    § 1196 Form Of Indemnity

    § 1197 Mixture Of Things By Will Of Owners Or By Chance

    § 1198 Mixture In Good Faith; In Bad Faith

    § 1199 Employment Of Another's Materials

    Chapter 141 Fixing Of Boundaries And Placing Of Landmarks

    § 1211 Right To Demand Fixing Of Boundaries

    § 1212 Method For Fixing Boundaries

    § 1213 Cases In Which Titles Do Not Specify Boundaries Chapter 143 Right To Enclose Agricultural Lands

    § 1231 Right To Enclose Agricultural Lands

    Chapter 145 Unstable Buildings And Trees About To Fall

    § 1241 Demolition Of Building, Etc.

    § 1242 Removal Of Tree

    § 1243 Liability If Building Or Tree Falls

    Part III Common Ownership Of Property

    Chapter 149 Rights And Duties Of Co-Owners

    § 1271 Property Owned In Common

    § 1272 Shares Of Participants; Presumption Of Equality

    § 1273 Use Of Things Held In Common

    § 1274 Expense Of Preservation

    § 1275 Stories Or Parts Of Stories Of Buildings Belonging To Different Owners

    § 1276 Change In Common Property

    § 1277 Decision Of Majority As To Management

    § 1278 Ownership Of Parts

    § 1279 Division Of Thing Held In Common

    § 1280 When Division Not Enforceable

    § 1281 Procedure For Division

    § 1282 Concurrence Or Objection Of Creditors Or Assignees

    § 1283 Indivisible Thing

    § 1284 Rights Of Third Persons

    § 1285 Rules Applicable To Division

    Chapter 150 Horizontal Property

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 1291l Use Of Elements Held In Common; Parking

    § 1291a Apartment, Definition

    § 1291b Effect Of Submission To Horizontal Property Regime

    § 1291c Effect Of Conveyance Or Encumbrance And Subrogation Of Rights--Apartment Planned And Not Begun

    § 1291d -- Apartment Under Construction

    § 1291e Number Of Co-Owners

    § 1291f Right Of Owner To His Apartment; Basis For Determining Share

    § 1291g Mortgage Credits Constituted Before Or After Submission To Regime; Consent Of Co-Owners

    § 1291h Foreclosure By Single Action After Distribution Of Mortgage Credits

    § 1291i General Common Elements Of The Property

    § 1291j Limited Common Elements Of The Property

    § 1291k Indivisibility Of Common Elements

    § 1291l Use Of Elements Held In Common; Parking

    § 1291m Rules Governing Use Of Apartments; Violation As Ground For Civil Action

    § 1291m-1 --Notice To Director Or Board Of Directors

    § 1291n Agreements Regarding Maintenance And Use Of Elements Held In Common

    § 1291o Payment For Urgent Repairs; Recovery From Other Co-Owners

    § 1291p Prohibition Of New Construction And Other Work Without Unanimous Consent

    § 1291q Right Of Redemption Upon Conveyance Of Indivisible Share

    § 1291r Distribution Of Common Profits

    § 1291s Majority Of Co-Owners And Council Of Co-Owners, Meaning Of Terms; Quorum

    Subchapter II Public Deed Of Horizontal Property; Recordation

    § 1292 Contents Of Public Deed

    § 1292a Contents Of Deeds Of Individual Apartments

    § 1292b Copies Of Plans To Be Appended To, Or To Accompany, Deeds; Authentication

    § 1292c Manner Of Recordation--Generally

    § 1292d --Particular Details With Respect To Registering Building Under Principal Record

    § 1292e --Particular Details With Respect To Registering Apartments By Means Of Filial Entries

    § 1292f Declaration By Public Deed Upon Completion Of Structures; Recording

    § 1292g Conveyances Or Encumbrances

    § 1292h Succeeding Transactions; Entry Of Proportional Share In Common Elements As Unnecessary

    § 1292i New Floors, Acquisitions Of Adjacent Land, Cancellation Of Liens, And Cautionary Notices

    § 1292j Description Of Deed In Case Of Segregation Of Portions Of Common Land Conveyed Jointly; Recording

    § 1292j-1 Division Of Apartments; Consent Of Co-Owners

    § 1292k Recordation Of Real-Property Rights In Apartments Not Recorded As To Ownership Or Possession; Form Of Demand

    § 1292l Waiver Of Horizontal Property Regime--Conditions For Merger Of Filial Estate In Record

    § 1292m -- Merger As No Bar To Subsequent Constitution Of Property Into Horizontal Property

    Subchapter III Administration And Insurance

    § 1293 Bylaws; Insertion Or Attachment To Deed; Certified Copies Filed In Registry

    § 1293-1 Initial Administration By Co-Owner Or Co-Owners, Powers And Duties

    § 1293a Necessary Contents Of Bylaws; Modifications Of System; Recording

    § 1293b Council Of Co-Owners--Powers And Duties

    § 1293b-1 --Meetings, Notice, Proceedings

    § 1293b-2 --Vote; Representation

    § 1293b-3 --Decisions Of Council, Rules; Quorum; Notice To Absentees

    § 1293b-4 --Director Or Board Of Directors; Powers And Duties

    § 1293b-5 --Secretary, Powers And Duties

    § 1293c Contributions For Payment Of Expenses Of Administration And Maintenance

    § 1293d Preference Of Credits Against Co-Owners For Shares In Expenses; Exceptions

    § 1293e Obligation Of Co-Owner For Common Expenses, Lien

    § 1293f Judicial Decisions; Challenge Of Decisions And Determinations Of Council, Term

    § 1293g Insuring Building Against Risk; Individual Rights Of Co-Owners

    § 1293h Application Of Insurance Indemnity To Reconstruction; Pro Rata Distribution In Certain Cases; Application Of Section 1283; Rules For Reconstruction

    § 1293i Sharing Of Reconstruction Costs When Building Not Insured Or Insurance Indemnity Is Insufficient; Modification Of Section By Unanimous Resolution

    § 1293j Mortgage Law And Regulations As Supplementary

    § 1293k Buildings Covered By Other Laws; Submission To Horizontal Property Regime

    Subchapter IV Sale Of Apartments And Administrative Forum

    § 1294 Filing Of Actions Of Challenge

    § 1294a Powers Of Secretary Of Department Of Consumer Affairs

    § 1294b Petition For Registration Of Apartments, Fees

    § 1294c Adjudication Of Controversies; Administrative Fines; Judicial Review

    § 1294d Special Fund, Creation

    Part IV Waters

    Chapter 153 Ownership Of Waters

    § 1311 Waters Belonging To Public Domain

    § 1312 Waters Belonging To Private Dominion

    Chapter 155 Use Of Public Waters

    §@ 1331, 1332 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1332 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1333 Extinguishment Of Right

    Chapter 157 Use Of Waters Of Private Ownership

    § 1351 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1352 Works Diverting Course Of Rain Waters

    §§ 1353, 1354 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1353 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1355 Receptacles For Rain Water

    Chapter 159 Subterranean Waters

    §§ 1371-1373 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, @ 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    Chapter 161 General Provisions

    § 1391 Defensive Works To Check Waters

    § 1392 Removal Of Obstructing Material

    § 1393 Payment Of Expenses

    § 1394 Eminent Domain

    § 1395 Repealed. Act June 3, 1976, No. 136, P. 390, § 25, Eff. June 3, 1976

    § 1396 Application Of Law Of Waters

    Part IV-A Intellectual Property

    Chapter 163 Intellectual Property

    § 1401 Exclusive Right

    § 1401a Moral Right

    § 1401b -- Protection

    § 1401c -- Extension

    § 1401d -- Creations By Public Employee

    § 1401e --Exception

    § 1401f --Remedies

    § 1401g -- Statute Of Limitations

    § 1401h --Actions

    Chapter 165 Copyright Registry

    § 1402 Copyright Registry--Creation

    § 1402a --Registrar

    § 1402b -- Acquisition Of Equipment; Regulations; Fees

    § 1402c -- Contents Of Registry

    § 1402d -- Registered Materials

    § 1402e -- Copyright Stamp

    § 1402f -- Deposit Of Works

    § 1402g -- Denial Of Registration; Notification

    § 1402h -- Procedure

    § 1402i -- Penalties

    § 1402j -- Certification

    § 1402k -- Inspection And Copies

    § 1402l -- Advice

    § 1402m Interpretation With Other Laws

    Part V Possession

    Chapter 167 Possession And Kinds Thereof

    § 1421 Natural Possession And Civil Possession Defined

    § 1422 Exercise Of Possession

    § 1423 Aspects Of Possession

    § 1424 Bona Fide Possessor; Possessor In Bad Faith

    § 1425 Good Faith Presumed

    § 1426 Presumption Of Continuance Of Understanding By Which Acquired

    § 1427 Things And Rights Susceptible Of Possession

    Chapter 169 Acquisition Of Possession

    § 1441 Mode Of Acquisition

    § 1442 By Whom Acquired

    § 1443 Transfer Of Possession Of Hereditary Property

    § 1444 Forceful Acquisition

    § 1445 Faulty Possession Of Testator

    § 1446 Minors And Incapacitated Persons

    § 1447 Clandestine And Tolerated Acts

    § 1448 Possession Not Recognized In Different Personalities Chapter 171 Effects Of Possession

    § 1461 Rights Of Possessor

    § 1462 Possession Necessary For Acquisition Of Ownership

    § 1463 Presumption Of Just Title

    § 1464 Furniture And Objects

    § 1465 Possession In Common

    § 1466 Ownership Of Fruits Collected

    § 1467 Fruits Ungathered When Good Faith Ceases

    § 1468 Refund Of Necessary And Useful Expenses

    § 1469 Expenses For Luxury Or Pleasure

    § 1470 Fruits And Expenses In Case Of Possessor In Bad Faith

    § 1471 Improvements Caused By Nature Or Time

    § 1472 Deterioration Or Loss

    § 1473 Improvements That Have Ceased To Exist

    § 1474 Continuation Of Possession Presumed

    § 1475 Loss Of Possession

    § 1476 Loss Of Possession Of Movable

    § 1477 Loss Of Possession Of Immovables

    § 1478 Effect Of Acts Relating To Possession

    § 1479 Possession Of Personal Property As Equivalent To Title

    § 1480 Animals

    § 1481 Recovery Of Possession Unlawfully Lost

    Part VI Usufruct, Use, And Occupancy

    Chapter 175 Usufruct

    Subchapter I Usufruct Generally

    § 1501 Definition

    § 1502 How Created

    § 1503 Forms Of Usufruct

    § 1504 Rights And Obligations Of Usufructuary

    Subchapter II Rights Of Usufructuary

    § 1511 Fruits; Treasures

    § 1512 Ungathered Fruits; Expenses

    § 1513 Rent Paid By Lessee

    § 1514 Civil Fruits

    § 1515 Right To Collect Rent, Allowance, Interest Or Dividends

    § 1516 Proceeds Of Mines And Quarries

    § 1517 Proceeds Of Mines In Legal Usufructs

    § 1518 Ownership Of Minerals

    § 1519 Right To Accession, Servitudes, And Benefits

    § 1520 Lease Or Alienation Of Usufruct

    § 1521 Liability For Deterioration

    § 1522 Use Of Consumable Property

    § 1523 Use Of Dead Trunks On Plantations

    § 1524 Trees Or Shrubs Destroyed By Storm, Etc.

    § 1525 Woodland; Nurseries

    § 1526 Usufructuary Of Action To Recover Property

    § 1527 Improvements

    § 1528 Damages Set Off With Improvements; Alienation Of Property Subject To Usufruct

    § 1529 Usufructuary Of Part Of Thing Held In Common

    Subchapter III Obligations Of Usufructuary

    § 1541 Inventory And Security

    § 1542 Exemptions From Giving Security

    § 1543 Exemption From Inventory And Security

    § 1544 Procedure When Security Not Given

    § 1545 Delivery Of Movables Under Security By Oath

    § 1546 Right To Products After Giving Security

    § 1547 Care Of Property

    § 1548 Liability For Damages After Alienation Or Lease

    § 1549 Usufruct On Cattle

    § 1550 Ordinary Repairs

    § 1551 Extraordinary Repairs

    § 1552 Extraordinary Repairs Made By Owner; By Usufructuary

    § 1553 Works And Improvements By Owner

    § 1554 Charges And Taxes Payable By Usufructuary

    § 1555 Taxes Payable By Owner

    § 1556 Debts Of Owner

    § 1557 Credits Forming Part Of Usufruct; Investment Of Capital

    § 1558 Payment Of Legacy

    § 1559 Debts Of Mortgaged Tenement

    § 1560 Debts Of Inheritance

    § 1561 Acts Of Third Persons Prejudicial To Ownership

    § 1562 Suits With Regard To Usufruct

    Subchapter IV Manner In Which Usufructs Extinguished

    § 1571 Extinguishment Of Usufruct

    § 1572 Partial Loss

    § 1573 Usufruct In Favor Of Town Or Corporation

    § 1574 Usufruct Granted Until Third Person Attains Certain Age

    § 1575 Destruction Of Building

    § 1576 Right To Insurance

    § 1577 Expropriation

    § 1578 Not Extinguished By Misuse

    § 1579 Usufruct In Favor Of Several Persons

    § 1580 Delivery To Owner

    Chapter 177 Use And Habitation

    § 1591 Use Defined

    § 1592 Right Of Habitation Defined

    § 1593 Establishment Of Rights Of Use And Habitation

    § 1594 Distinction Between Use And Usufruct

    § 1595 Rights And Obligations Of Persons Having Rights Of Use Or Habitation

    § 1596 Lease Or Transfer Forbidden

    § 1597 Use Of Cattle

    § 1598 Payment Of Expenses

    § 1599 Right Of Use During Life Of Beneficiary

    § 1600 Marriage As Affecting Right Of Habitation

    § 1601 Right To Entertain Guests And Boarders

    § 1602 Care And Attention Required

    § 1603 Provisions Governing Usufruct Applicable

    § 1604 Extinction Of Rights

    Part VII Servitudes

    Chapter 181 Servitudes Generally

    Subchapter I Kinds Of Servitudes

    § 1631 Servitude Defined; Dominant And Servient Tenements

    § 1632 Servitudes For Benefit Of Persons Or Community

    § 1633 Classes Of Servitudes--Personal; Real Or Predial

    § 1634 --Continuous; Discontinuous; Apparent; Not Apparent

    § 1635 -- Positive; Negative

    § 1636 Inseparable From Tenement

    § 1637 Servitudes Indivisible

    § 1638 Legal And Voluntary Servitudes

    Subchapter II Manner Of Acquiring Servitudes

    § 1651 Acquisition By Title Or Prescription

    § 1652 Computation Of Time For Prescription

    § 1653 Servitudes Acquired Only By Title

    § 1654 Remedy For Want Of Title

    § 1655 Sign Of Servitude Established By Owner Of Both Tenements

    § 1656 Rights Of Use Inherent In Servitude

    Subchapter III Rights And Obligations Of Owners Of Dominant And Servient Tenements

    § 1671 Works For Use And Preservation Of Servitude

    § 1672 -- Expenses

    § 1673 Impairment Of Use Of Servitude

    Subchapter IV Extinguishment Of Servitudes

    § 1681 Manner Of Extinguishment

    § 1682 Prescription Of Form Of Use

    § 1683 Prescription Prevented By Use Of One Of Several Owners Chapter 183 Legal Servitudes

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 1701 Object Of Legal Servitudes

    § 1702 Law Governing Servitudes For Public Utility

    § 1703 Law Governing Servitudes For Private Interest Subchapter II Servitudes Relating To Waters

    § 1711 Waters Which Naturally Descend From Higher Tenements

    § 1712 Banks Of Rivers

    § 1713 Abutment Of Dams

    § 1714 Drawing Of Water And Drinking Troughs For Animals

    § 1715 -- Right-Of-Way To Persons And Animals

    § 1716 Passage Of Water Through Intermediate Tenements

    § 1717 -- Proof And Indemnity Required

    § 1718 Servitude Of Aqueduct -- Property Not Subject To

    § 1719 -- Fencing Or Building On Servient Tenement

    § 1720 --Considered As Continuous And Apparent

    § 1721 Stop Locks Or Sluice Gates

    § 1722 Application Of Law Of Waters

    Subchapter III Servitudes Of Right Of Way

    § 1731 Right Of Way To Reach Public Highway

    § 1732 Location

    § 1733 Width Of Servitude

    § 1734 When Granted Without Indemnity

    § 1735 Extinction Of Servitude

    § 1736 Transportation Of Materials; Scaffolding For Building

    § 1737 Passage Of Stock And Watering Troughs

    Subchapter IV Servitude Of Party Walls And Fences

    § 1751 Law Governing

    § 1752 Presumption Of Servitude Of Party Walls And Fences

    § 1753 Exterior Signs Contrary To Servitude

    § 1754 Ditches And Drains Between Tenements

    § 1755 Cost Of Repairs And Construction

    § 1756 Demolition Of Building Supported By Party Wall

    § 1757 Construction Or Reconstruction Of Party Wall

    § 1758 Ownership Of Increased Height, Depth, Or Thickness

    § 1759 Use Of Party Wall

    Subchapter V Servitude Of Light And View

    § 1771 Windows Or Openings -- In Party Wall

    § 1772 --In Other Walls

    § 1773 Windows And Balconies

    § 1774 -- Measurement Of Distances

    § 1775 Buildings Separated By Public Thoroughfare

    § 1776 Distance For Building When Right Acquired

    Subchapter VI Drainage Of Buildings

    § 1791 Construction Of Roofs

    § 1792 Disposition Of Water Received

    § 1793 Servitude Of Drain

    Subchapter VII Intermediate Distances And Works For Certain Constructions And Plantings

    § 1801 Building, Etc., Near Fortifications

    § 1802 Dangerous Or Noxious Constructions

    § 1803 Trees

    § 1804 Branches And Roots Of Trees

    § 1805 Party Trees

    Chapter 185 Voluntary Servitudes

    § 1821 Establishment Of Voluntary Servitudes

    § 1822 Servitudes Not Injuring Usufruct

    § 1823 Consent Of Persons Having Direct And Beneficial Dominion

    § 1824 Servitude On Undivided Tenement

    § 1825 Rights And Obligations Under Servitude By Prescription

    § 1826 Cost Of Works For Use And Preservation Of Servitude

    § 1827 Pasturage In Common -- How Established

    § 1828 -- On Public Lands

    § 1829 -- Enclosure Of Property

    § 1830 Redemption Of Servitude Of Pasturage

    § 1831 Servitude For Use Of Woodland Products

    Part VIII Homestead

    Chapter 187 Right Of Homestead; Registration; Exemption From Execution, Etc.

    § 1851 Right Of Homestead

    § 1852 Exemption From Attachment, Judgment, Levy, Or Execution

    § 1853 Continuance Of Exemption After Death, Desertion, Or Divorce

    § 1854 Claim Of Homestead Upon Acquisition; Entry In Registry Of Property; Penalty For Illegal Registration

    § 1855 Claim Of Homestead Upon Sale Under Judgment Or Execution

    § 1856 Ordinary Action If No Claim Established Before Sale; Notice Of Sale

    § 1857 Exemption From Registration Fees

    Part IX Registry Of Property

    Chapter 191 Recording Of Ownership And Rights

    § 1871 Object Of Registry Of Property

    § 1872 Unrecorded Titles Not Prejudicial To Third Persons

    § 1873 Registry To Be Public

    § 1874 Application Of Mortgage Law

    § 1875 [Transferred.]

    Subtitle 3 Different Ways Of Acquiring Ownership

    Part I Generally

    Chapter 197 List Of Ways Ownership May Be Acquired

    § 1931 How Acquired

    Part II Occupancy

    Chapter 201 Acquisition Of Ownership By Occupancy

    § 1951 Things Acquired By Occupancy

    § 1952 Right To Hunt And Fish

    § 1953 Swarms Of Bees; Tamed Animals

    § 1954 Pigeons, Rabbits, And Fish

    § 1955 Treasure Found On Another's Property

    § 1956 Finding Of Personal Property

    § 1957 --Reward For Finder

    § 1958 Flotsam, Jetsam, And Seashore Plants

    Part III Gifts

    Chapter 205 Nature Of Gifts

    § 1981 Gift Defined

    § 1982 Inter Vivos Or Causa Mortis

    § 1983 Kinds Of Gifts Inter Vivos

    § 1984 Onerous Gifts

    § 1985 Gifts Effective Upon Death Of Donor

    § 1986 Provisions Governing -- Gifts Inter Vivos

    § 1987 -- Onerous And Remunerative Gifts

    § 1988 Consummation Of Gift

    Chapter 207 Persons Who Can Bestow Or Receive Gifts

    § 2001 Who Can Bestow Gifts

    § 2002 Who Can Accept Gifts

    § 2003 Acceptance By Persons Who Cannot Contract

    § 2004 Gifts To Persons Unborn

    § 2005 Gifts To Incapacitated Persons

    § 2006 Effect Begins After Acceptance

    § 2007 Acceptance Personally Or By Proxy

    § 2008 Acceptance On Behalf Of Others

    § 2009 Gift Of Personal Property

    § 2010 Gift Of Real Property

    Chapter 209 Effects And Limitations Of Gifts

    § 2021 Property Which May Be Included In Gift

    § 2022 Future Property

    § 2023 Limitation To Property Which May Be Included In Will

    § 2024 Gift To Several Persons Jointly

    § 2025 Subrogation Of Donee To Rights And Actions Of Donor

    § 2026 Reservation Of Rights To Donor

    § 2027 Separation Of Ownership And Usufruct

    § 2028 Reversion In Favor Of Donor; Of Third Person

    § 2029 Gift Imposing Duty To Pay Debts

    § 2030 Liability Of Donee For Debts; Gift In Fraud Of Creditors

    Chapter 211 Revocation And Reduction Of Gifts

    § 2041 Supervention Of Children

    § 2042 -- Return Of Things

    § 2043 -- Prescription Of Action Of Revocation And Restitution

    § 2044 Noncompliance With Conditions Imposed On Donee

    § 2045 Ingratitude

    § 2046 -- Validity Of Alienations And Mortgages

    § 2047 -- Rights Of Donor

    § 2048 Return Of Fruits

    § 2049 Action For Causes Of Ingratitude -- Renunciation And Prescription

    § 2050 -- Rights Of Heirs

    § 2051 Reduction Of Gifts

    § 2052 Who Can Demand Reduction

    § 2053 Reduction In Case Of Two Or More Gifts

    Part IV Successions

    Chapter 215 General Provisions

    § 2081 Succession Defined

    § 2082 -- Additional Meaning

    § 2083 What Included In Succession

    § 2084 Additional Meaning

    § 2085 Rights Transmitted From Moment Of Death

    § 2086 Succession As Testamentary Or Legal

    § 2087 Testamentary Succession Defined

    § 2088 Legitimate Or Legal Succession Defined

    § 2089 Irregular Succession

    § 2090 Inheritance Defined

    § 2091 Heir And Legatee Defined

    § 2092 How Heirs Succeed

    Chapter 217 Wills

    Subchapter I Capacity To Dispose By Will

    § 2111 Who May Make Wills

    § 2112 Disqualified Persons

    § 2113 Will Made Before Mental Alienation

    § 2114 Wills By Lunatics

    § 2115 Determination Of Capacity Of Testator

    Subchapter II Wills Generally

    § 2121 Will Defined

    § 2122 How Testator May Dispose Of Property

    § 2123 Joint Wills Prohibited

    § 2124 Will As Personal Act

    § 2125 Distribution By Third Persons

    § 2126 Reference To Private Memoranda Or Papers

    § 2127 Duress, Deceit, Or Fraud

    § 2128 -- Preventing Execution Of Will

    § 2129 Construction Of Testamentary Provisions; Contest Of Will

    Subchapter III Form Of Wills

    § 2141 Kinds Of Wills

    § 2142 Special Wills

    § 2143 Holographic Will

    § 2144 Open Will

    § 2145 Closed Will

    § 2146 Persons Disqualified As Witnesses

    § 2147 Heirs, Legatees, And Relatives As Witnesses

    § 2148 Declaration Of Disqualification Of Witness

    § 2149 Will In Foreign Language

    § 2150 Acquaintance Of Notary And Witnesses With Testator

    § 2151 Identification Of Testator

    § 2152 Will Void For Failure To Observe Formalities

    Subchapter IV Holographic Wills

    § 2161 Execution Of Holographic Wills

    § 2162 Place Of Execution; Language

    § 2163 Protocolization

    § 2164 Presentation After Death

    § 2165 Procedure After Presentation And Proof Of Death

    § 2166 Citation Of Spouse And Relatives

    § 2167 Action After Proof Of Identity Of Will

    Subchapter V Open Wills

    § 2181 Before Whom Executed

    § 2182 Manner Of Execution

    § 2183 When Testator Presents Testamentary Disposition In Writing

    § 2184 Deaf Testator

    § 2185 Blind Testator

    § 2186 Formalities To Be Without Interruption; Certificate Of Notary

    § 2187 Testator In Imminent Danger Of Death

    § 2188 Execution In Case Of Epidemic

    § 2189 When Written Will Not Indispensable

    § 2190 When Will Becomes Void

    § 2191 Wills Executed Without Authentication Of Notary

    § 2192 Liability Of Notary

    Subchapter VI Closed Wills

    § 2201 Writing Of Closed Will

    § 2202 Formalities Of Execution

    § 2203 Blind Persons And Those Unable To Read

    § 2204 Execution By Deaf And Dumb

    § 2205 Delivery To Testator

    § 2206 Disposition Of Will

    § 2207 Presentation To Court After Death Of Testator

    § 2208 Liability For Failure To Present Will

    § 2209 Opening And Protocolization Of Will

    § 2210 Nullity For Failure To Observe Formalities; Liability Of Notary

    Subchapter VII Will Made Outside Puerto Rico

    § 2221 Law Governing

    § 2222 Mutual Wills

    Subchapter VIII Revocation And Inefficacy Of Wills

    § 2231 Revocation Of Wills

    § 2232 Formalities For Revocation

    § 2233 Revocation By Law By Subsequent Will

    § 2234 --Invalidity Of Second Will

    § 2235 Acknowledgment Of Illegitimate Child In Revoked Will

    § 2236 When Revocation Presumed

    § 2237 Wills Void Or Without Effect Only In Accordance With This Title

    Chapter 219 Inheritances

    Subchapter I Capacity To Succeed By Will Or In Absence Thereof

    § 2251 Who Can Succeed

    § 2252 Disqualified Persons

    § 2253 Public Institution

    § 2254 Bequests In Favor Of The Poor

    § 2255 Unidentified Persons

    § 2256 Relatives Of Testator

    § 2257 Bequests Made During Last Illness

    § 2258 Bequest Of Ward In Favor Of Guardian

    § 2259 Bequest In Favor Of Notary Or Witness

    § 2260 Bequest In Favor Of Incapacitated Person

    § 2261 Disqualification By Reason Of Unworthiness

    § 2262 Knowledge Or Condonation Of Unworthiness By Testator

    § 2263 Time Considered In Determining Qualifications

    § 2264 Death In Case Of Conditional Legacy

    § 2265 Return Of Hereditary Property Improperly Taken

    § 2266 Inheritance By Descendants Of Disqualified Person

    § 2267 Prescription Of Action For Declaration Of Incapacity Subchapter II Designation Of Heirship

    § 2281 Disposition Of Property Where There Are No Heirs; Heirs By Force Of Law

    § 2282 When Will Valid

    § 2283 Shares When Not Designated

    § 2284 Transmission Of Rights

    § 2285 Statement Of False Or Illegal Reason For Designation

    § 2286 When Heir Considered Legatee

    § 2287 Individual And Collective Designations

    § 2288 Designation Of Brothers Or Sisters

    § 2289 Designation Of Person And His Children

    § 2290 How Heirs Designated

    § 2291 Errors In Name Or Qualities; Impossibility Of Identification

    Subchapter III Substitution

    § 2301 Simple Substitution

    § 2302 Substitutes For Descendants -- Under 14

    § 2303 -- Over 14, Of Unsound Mind

    § 2304 -- Heirs Of Substitute

    § 2305 Substitute Of Several Persons For One, And Vice Versa

    § 2306 Substitution Of Heirs In Unequal Portions

    § 2307 Obligations Of Substitute

    § 2308 Substitutions In Trust

    § 2309 --Effect On Legal Portion

    § 2310 -- Express Appointments Required; Duty Of Fiduciary

    § 2311 -- Right Of Cestui Que Trust

    § 2312 Disposition Without Effect

    § 2313 Nullity Of Substitution In Trust

    § 2314 Provision Leaving Property To One Person And Usufruct To Another

    § 2315 Investment Of Funds In Charitable Works

    § 2316 Provisions As To Heirs Applicable To Legatees Subchapter IV Designation Of Heirs And Legacies Conditionally Or For A Term

    § 2331 Conditional Testamentary Provisions

    § 2332 Rules Governing Conditions

    § 2333 Impossible Conditions And Those Contrary To Law, Etc.

    § 2334 Condition Not To Contract Marriage

    § 2335 Condition To Make Will In Favor Of Testator Or Another Person

    § 2336 Compulsory Condition

    § 2337 Casual Or Mixed Condition

    § 2338 Statement Of Object Of Designation Not A Condition

    § 2339 Action If Terms Of Testator Cannot Be Complied With

    § 2340 Conditions Precedent

    § 2341 Negative Condition, Security For Compliance

    § 2342 Administration Of Estate Until Condition Fulfilled

    § 2343 -- By Unconditional Heirs

    § 2344 -- By Conditional Heir, Presumptive Heir, Or Third Person

    § 2345 Rights And Obligations Of Administrator

    § 2346 Statement Of Time When Designation Begins Or Ceases Subchapter V Legal Portions

    § 2361 Legal Portion Defined

    § 2362 Forced Heirs Defined

    § 2363 Legal Portion Of Children And Descendants

    § 2364 Legal Portion Of Parents Or Ascendants

    § 2365 Division Between Parents Or Among Ascendants

    § 2366 Succession Of Ascendants To Things Given Their Descendants

    § 2367 Heir Cannot Be Deprived Of Legal Portion

    § 2368 Omission Of Lawful Heir; Omission Of Spouse

    § 2369 Right Of Heir To Demand Full Legal Portion

    § 2370 Renunciation Or Compromise Of Future Legal Portion

    § 2371 Testamentary Provisions Impairing Legal Portion

    § 2372 Determination Of Legal Portion

    § 2373 Gifts Considered Part Of Legal Portion

    § 2374 Manner Of Reducing Legacies

    § 2375 Estate Not Easily Divided; Legatee Entitled To Legal Portion

    § 2376 Rights Of Heirs And Legatees

    Subchapter VI Advantages Or Extra Portions

    § 2391 Advantage Or Extra Portion Defined

    § 2392 Gifts Inter Vivos Not Considered Advantage Or Extra Portion

    § 2393 Promise In Marriage Agreement

    § 2394 Revocation Of Advantage Or Extra Portion

    § 2395 Bequest Or Legacy, How Considered

    § 2396 Advantage Or Extra Portion In Specified Thing

    § 2397 Authority Cannot Be Delegated

    § 2398 -- Exception As To Marriage Agreements

    § 2399 Payment When Not Granted In Specified Thing

    § 2400 Renunciation Of Inheritance To Accept Advantage Or Extra Portion

    Subchapter VII Rights Of Surviving Spouse

    § 2411 Rights Of Spouse To Usufruct

    § 2412 Source Of Portion

    § 2413 When Testator Leaves Ascendants But No Descendants

    § 2414 Absence Of Ascendants And Descendants

    § 2415 Source Of Usufruct

    § 2416 Usufruct When There Are Children Of Two Or More Marriages

    Subchapter VIII Rights Of Illegitimate Children

    § 2431 Rights Of Acknowledged Natural Children--When There Are Legitimate Children

    § 2432 --When There Are Legitimate Ascendants Only

    § 2433 --When There Are No Legitimate Descendants Or Ascendants

    § 2434 Transmission Of Rights Of Natural Children

    § 2435 Extension Of Rights To Natural Parents

    § 2436 Gifts To Natural Child

    Subchapter IX Disinheritance

    § 2451 When Disinheritance Can Take Place

    § 2452 Only In Will

    § 2453 Proof Of Reason For Disinheritance

    § 2454 Effect Of Disinheritance Without Reason

    § 2455 Reasons For Disinheritance

    § 2456 -- Reasons For Disinheritance -- Children And Descendants

    § 2457 -- Parents And Ancestors

    § 2458 -- Spouse

    § 2459 Effect Of Reconciliation

    Subchapter X Legacies And Bequests

    § 2471 Who May Be Charged With Legacies Or Bequests

    § 2472 Liability Of Heirs

    § 2473 Liability In Case Of Eviction

    § 2474 Legacy Of Another's Property

    § 2475 -- When Void

    § 2476 Legacy Of Things Not Marketable

    § 2477 Legacy Of Things Belonging To Legatee

    § 2478 Things Given As Security

    § 2479 Things Subject To Usufruct, Use, Or Habitation

    § 2480 When Legacy Ineffective

    § 2481 Legacy Of Credit Against Third Person Or Release Of Legatee's Debt

    § 2482 -- When Void; Pledge

    § 2483 Legacy Of Release Of Debts

    § 2484 Legacy To Creditor

    § 2485 Alternative Legacies

    § 2486 Legacy Of Generic Personal Property; Undetermined Real Estate

    § 2487 Option To Heir Or Legatee

    § 2488 Transmission Of Option To Heirs

    § 2489 Bequest Of Property Belonging To Legatee

    § 2490 Legacy For Education Or Support

    § 2491 Payment Of Periodical Pensions

    § 2492 Right Of Legatee--Pure And Simple Legacy

    § 2493 --Specific And Determined Thing

    § 2494 Delivery Of Thing Bequeathed

    § 2495 Bequest Of Generic Thing Or Quantity

    § 2496 Request For Delivery

    § 2497 Delivery By Heir; Cash Legacies; Expenses

    § 2498 Order Of Payment Of Legacies

    § 2499 Disposition Of Refused Or Invalid Legacy

    § 2500 Acceptance And Repudiation -- Parts Of Legacy

    § 2501 -- Different Legacies

    § 2502 Debts And Charges When Entire Estate Distributed In Legacies

    Subchapter XI Executors

    § 2511 Number Of Executors

    § 2512 Qualifications

    § 2513 Universal Or Special; How Appointed

    § 2514 Executors Appointed Severally--Actions By

    § 2515 -- When One May Act

    § 2516 --Appointment Severally Presumed

    § 2517 Voluntary Office; Acceptance

    § 2518 Renunciation Of Office

    § 2519 Loss Of Legacy By Refusal To Accept Or Renunciation Without Cause

    § 2520 Powers Of Executors

    § 2521 Powers When Not Specially Determined By Testator

    § 2522 Sale Of Property To Pay Funeral Expenses And Legacies

    § 2523 Duration Of Executorship

    § 2524 -- Extension Of Term By Testator Or Court

    § 2525 -- Extension By Heirs And Legatees

    § 2526 Accounts Of Executors

    § 2527 Remuneration Of Executors

    § 2528 Delegation Of Executorship

    § 2529 Termination Of Executorship

    § 2530 Execution Of Will By Heirs

    Chapter 221 Constitution Of Trusts (Fideicommissa)

    § 2541 Trusts Defined

    § 2542 How Constituted

    § 2543 Constitution Inter Vivos

    § 2544 Property Upon Which Constituted

    § 2545 Trust Upon Real Property; Recording

    § 2546 Classes

    § 2547 Purposes

    § 2548 Conditions In Trust, When Prescribed

    § 2549 Subsequent Trusts, When Void

    § 2550 When Rights Of Cestui Que Trust Or Constituent Pass To Heirs

    § 2551 Secret Trusts Prohibited

    § 2552 In Favor Of Nonexisting Person

    § 2553 Other Prohibited Trusts

    § 2554 Other Invalid Trusts

    § 2555 Term And Extinction In Certain Cases

    § 2556 Beginning Of Legal Existence; Acceptance; Irrevocability

    § 2557 Express Acceptance

    § 2558 Remuneration Of Trustee

    § 2559 Extinction Of Trust

    § 2560 Termination Of Legal Existence

    § 2561 Qualifications Of Constituent

    § 2562 Form, Purpose, And Conditions; Number Of Trustees And Cestuis Que Trust

    § 2563 Appointment Of Substitute -- For Trustee

    § 2564 -- For Cestui Que Trust

    § 2565 Summary Proceedings By Constituent

    § 2566 Qualifications, Number, And Joint Designation Of Trustees

    § 2567 Substitution Upon Incapacity, Removal, Or Death Of Trustee

    § 2568 Resignation

    § 2569 Liability Of Trustee

    § 2570 Application For Termination Upon Renunciation Or Death Of Cestui Que Trust

    § 2571 Bond Of Trustee

    § 2572 Rights And Actions Of Trustee

    § 2573 Disposal Of Trust Property

    § 2574 Removal Of Trustee

    § 2575 Disposal Of Property Upon Extinction Of Trust

    § 2576 Cestui Que Trust--Qualifications; Number

    § 2577 --Summary Proceedings By

    § 2578 Recording Of Trust Property

    § 2579 -- Deed Of Acceptance

    § 2580 -- Substitution Of Trustee

    § 2581 System Of Inheritance Not Affected

    Chapter 223 Intestate Succession

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 2591 When Legitimate Succession Takes Place

    § 2592 Disposition Of Inheritance In Absence Of Testamentary Heirs

    § 2593 Disqualifications In Intestate Succession

    Subchapter II Relationship

    § 2601 Nearness Of Relationship; Degree

    § 2602 Direct And Collateral Lines

    § 2603 Descending And Ascending Lines

    § 2604 Computation Of Degrees

    § 2605 -- Application In All Matters

    § 2606 Whole Blood Relationship

    § 2607 Nearest Relative Excludes More Remote; Relatives In Same Degree

    § 2608 Disposition Of Portion Of Relative Unwilling Or Unable To Succeed

    § 2609 Disposition Of Inheritance Repudiated By Nearest Relative

    Subchapter III Representation

    § 2621 Right Of Representation Defined

    § 2622 Right In Direct Descending Line; Collateral Line

    § 2623 Division Per Stirpes

    § 2624 Representation When Children Of Brothers Or Sisters Survive

    § 2625 Representation Not Lost By Renunciation Of Inheritance

    § 2626 Representation Of Living Person

    Chapter 225 Order Of Succession According To Diversity Of Lines Subchapter I Descending Direct Line

    § 2641 To Whom Succession Pertains In First Place

    § 2642 Sex And Age; Children Of Different Marriages

    § 2643 Rights Of Children

    § 2644 Grandchildren And Other Descendants

    § 2645 Children And Descendants Of Deceased Children Subchapter II Ascending Direct Line

    § 2651 When Ancestors Succeed

    § 2652 Parents

    § 2653 Other Ancestors

    § 2654 Succession Of Ascendants To Things Given Their Descendants

    Subchapter III Acknowledged Illegitimate Children

    § 2661 Rights Of Succession Of Recognized Natural Children Subchapter IV Succession Of Collaterals And Spouses

    § 2671 When Collaterals And Spouses Inherit

    § 2672 Brothers And Sisters Of Whole Blood

    § 2673 Brothers And Nephews Of Whole Blood

    § 2674 Brothers Of Whole Blood And Brothers Of Half Blood

    § 2675 Brothers Of Half Blood Only

    § 2676 Children Of Brothers Of Half Blood

    § 2677 Surviving Spouse

    § 2678 Other Collateral Relatives

    § 2679 Extent Of Right To Inherit Ab Intestato

    Subchapter V Right Of Succession Of The Commonwealth

    § 2691 Right Of Succession By Commonwealth

    § 2692 Judicial Proceeding Required For Possession Of Escheated Inheritances

    § 2693 Transfer Of Property Of Commonwealth Acquired Ab Intestato To University And Land Authority

    Chapter 227 Provisions Common To Inheritance By Or Without Will Subchapter I Precautions When Widow Remains Pregnant

    § 2711 Notice Of Pregnancy By Widow

    § 2712 Measures To Avoid Feigned Delivery Or Claim That Issue Born Alive

    § 2713 Notice Of Time Of Parturition; Establishment Of Delivery

    § 2714 Effect Of Omission Formalities On Legitimacy; Prescription Of Action

    § 2715 Notices When Husband Has Acknowledged Pregnancy

    § 2716 Right Of Pregnant Widow To Support

    § 2717 Administration Of Property Until Delivery Or Certainty There Will Be None

    § 2718 Division Of Inheritance Suspended; Payment Of Creditors

    § 2719 Account Of Administration

    Subchapter II Property To Be Set Apart

    § 2731 Widower Or Widow Contracting Second Marriage

    § 2732 What Property Included

    § 2733 Termination Of Obligation

    § 2734 --If No Descendant Of First Marriage Survives

    § 2735 Advantages Or Extra Portions

    § 2736 Succession To Property To Be Set Apart

    § 2737 Alienations Of Real Property--Before Second Marriage

    § 2738 --After Second Marriage

    § 2739 Alienations Of Personal Property

    § 2740 Inventory, Recording, And Appraisal Of Property

    § 2741 Security By Mortgage

    § 2742 Third And Subsequent Marriages

    § 2743 Obligation To Set Apart In Case Of Subsequent Natural Child

    Subchapter III Right Of Accretion

    § 2751 Portion Of Person Repudiating Inheritance

    § 2752 Requirements For Accretion In Testamentary Succession

    § 2753 Designation By Portion

    § 2754 Rights And Obligations Of Heirs To Whom Inheritance Accrues

    § 2755 Accretion Among Heirs By Force Of Law

    § 2756 Disposition Of Portion In Absence Of Accretion

    § 2757 Accretion Between Legatees And Usufructuaries Subchapter IV Acceptance And Repudiation Of Inheritance

    § 2771 Acceptance And Repudiation As Voluntary Acts

    § 2772 Retroactive Effects

    § 2773 Acceptance Or Repudiation Cannot Be Partial, Temporary, Or Conditional

    § 2774 Certainty Of Death And Rights Required

    § 2775 Persons Who May Accept Or Repudiate--Minors Or Incapacitated Persons; Poor

    § 2776 -- Associations, Corporations, And Institutions

    § 2777 -- Public Official Establishments

    § 2778 -- Deaf Mutes

    § 2779 Acceptance And Repudiation Irrevocable

    § 2780 How Inheritances Accepted

    § 2781 Pure And Simple Acceptances; Express Or Implied

    § 2782 When Inheritance Considered Accepted

    § 2783 Repudiation To Prejudice Of Creditors

    § 2784 Heirs Taking Or Concealing Property

    § 2785 Liability Of Heir For Charges

    § 2786 Action To Compel Acceptance Or Repudiation

    § 2787 --Period For Declaration Of Intention

    § 2788 Death Of Heir Without Accepting Or Repudiating

    § 2789 Acceptance Or Repudiation Where There Are Several Heirs

    § 2790 How Repudiation Made

    § 2791 Person Inheriting By Will And Ab Intestato

    Subchapter V Benefit Of Inventory And Right To Deliberate

    § 2801 Acceptance Under Benefit Of Inventory And Right To Deliberate

    § 2802 How Made

    § 2803 When Heir Is Abroad

    § 2804 Inventory Required

    § 2805 Time For Requesting Benefit Of Inventory--Heir In Possession Of Property

    § 2806 --Heir Not In Possession

    § 2807 -- While Action To Claim Inheritance Does Not Prescribe

    § 2808 Time For Beginning And Completing Inventory

    § 2809 Failure To Begin Or Finish Inventory Through Fault Of Heir

    § 2810 Time For Deliberation After Inventory

    § 2811 Administration During Inventory

    § 2812 Claim Of Inheritance In Possession Of Another

    § 2813 When Inventory Benefits Substitutes And Intestate Heirs

    § 2814 Effect Of Benefit Of Inventory

    § 2815 Loss Of Benefit Of Inventory

    § 2816 Payment Of Legacies Pending Inventory And Deliberation

    § 2817 When Estate Under Administration; Powers Of Administrator

    § 2818 Payment Of Creditors Before Legacies

    § 2819 Order Of Payment Of Creditors

    § 2820 Creditors Appearing After Payment Of Legacies

    § 2821 Sale Of Hereditary Estate

    § 2822 Account Of Administration; Liability Of Administrator

    § 2823 Rights Of Heirs After Payment Of Debts And Legacies; Account Of Administrator Other Than Heir

    § 2824 Expenses Of Inventory, Administration, And Deliberation

    § 2825 Private Creditors Of Heir

    Chapter 229 Collation And Division

    Subchapter I Collation

    § 2841 Property Received During Life Of Deceased Subject To Collation

    § 2842 When Collation Does Not Take Place

    § 2843 Property Left By Will

    § 2844 Grandchildren Inheriting In Representation Of Parents

    § 2845 Gifts To Grandchildren

    § 2846 Gifts To Spouse Of Child

    § 2847 Expenses For Support, Education, Etc.

    § 2848 Expenses For Professional Or Artistic Career For Children

    § 2849 Amounts Paid By Father For Son's Debts, Etc.

    § 2850 Wedding Presents

    § 2851 Things Bestowed As Gifts Or Dowry

    § 2852 -- By One Or Both Spouses

    § 2853 Deduction Of Amount Received By Donee

    § 2854 Gifts Of Real Estate; Personal Property

    § 2855 Fruits Of And Interest On Property Subject To Collation

    § 2856 Division Not Stopped By Question As To Collation If Security Given

    Subchapter II Division

    § 2871 When Division Permitted

    § 2872 Request For Division

    § 2873 Conditional Heirs; Provisional Division

    § 2874 Death Of Coheir

    § 2875 Division By Testator; Cash Payment Instead Of Division

    § 2876 Grant Of Power Of Division By Testator; Duties Of Trustee

    § 2877 Division By Heirs

    § 2878 Legal Proceedings If Heirs Disagree

    § 2879 Minors Subject To Parental Authority

    § 2880 Fairness Of Division

    § 2881 Disposition Of Indivisible Thing

    § 2882 Reciprocal Compensation Among Coheirs

    § 2883 Costs Of Division

    § 2884 Delivery Of Titles Of Acquisition Or Ownership

    § 2885 Title Including Several Estates Awarded To Several Coheirs

    § 2886 Subrogation To Place Of Purchaser

    Subchapter III Effects Of Division

    § 2901 Ownership Of Property Conferred By Division

    § 2902 Surrender And Guarantee Among Coheirs

    § 2903 When Obligation Ceases

    § 2904 Proportional Obligation; Insolvency Of Coheir

    § 2905 Liability For Insolvency Of Debtor; Unrecoverable Credits

    Subchapter IV Rescission Of Division

    § 2911 Causes For Rescission

    § 2912 By Reason Of Lesion

    § 2913 Injury To Legal Portion Of Heirs By Force Of Law

    § 2914 Prescription Of Action

    § 2915 Choice Between Indemnity And New Division

    § 2916 Alienation Of Property Preventing Rescissory Action

    § 2917 Omissions Of Objects Or Securities

    § 2918 Division Made With Preterition Of Heir

    § 2919 Division With Person Not An Heir

    Subchapter V Payment Of Hereditary Debts

    § 2931 Opposition To Division Until Credits Paid Or Secured

    § 2932 Participation In Division By Creditors Of Coheirs

    § 2933 Demand For Payment Of Debts After Division

    § 2934 Right Of Heir Paying More Than His Share

    § 2935 Extinction Of Charge On Estates Of Inheritance

    § 2936 Rights Of Coheirs Who Are Creditors

    Subtitle 4 Obligations And Contracts

    Part I Obligations

    Chapter 241 General Provisions

    § 2991 Obligation Consists Of What

    § 2992 How Created

    § 2993 Obligations Arising From Law Not Presumed; Demandable Obligations

    § 2994 Arising From Contracts

    § 2995 Civil Obligations Arising From Crimes Or Misdemeanors

    § 2996 Obligations Arising From Fault Or Negligence

    Chapter 243 Nature And Effects Of Obligations

    § 3011 Preservation Of Thing Due

    § 3012 Rights Of Creditor To Fruits

    § 3013 Delivery Of Specified Or Generic Things; Liability Pending Delivery

    § 3014 Accessories Of Thing

    § 3015 Performance At Expense Of Person Obligated; Badly Done Thing Ordered Undone

    § 3016 Obligation Not To Do Something

    § 3017 Default; Demand Of Creditor

    § 3018 Fraud, Negligence, Or Delay In Fulfilling Obligation

    § 3019 Liability Arising From Fraud

    § 3020 Liability Arising From Negligence

    § 3021 What Constitutes Fault Or Negligence

    § 3022 Unforeseen Or Inevitable Events

    § 3023 Indemnity For Losses And Damages

    § 3024 Losses And Damages For Which Debtor Liable

    § 3025 Interest As Indemnity For Nonpayment Of Money

    § 3026 Legal Interest On Interest Due; Commercial Transactions

    § 3027 Receipt Extinguishes Obligation

    § 3028 Rights Of Creditors Attaching Property

    § 3029 Transmission Of Rights

    Chapter 245 Different Kinds Of Obligations

    Subchapter I Pure And Conditional Obligations

    § 3041 When Obligations Demandable

    § 3042 Rights In Conditional Obligations

    § 3043 Validity And Effect Of Conditional Obligation

    § 3044 Impossible, Immoral, And Illegal Conditions

    § 3045 Condition That Event Happen Within Fixed Period

    § 3046 Condition That Event Shall Not Happen

    § 3047 When Condition Considered Fulfilled

    § 3048 Retroactive Effect Of Fulfillment Of Condition

    § 3049 Actions Before Fulfillment Of Conditions

    § 3050 Rules If Conditions Established To Suspend Efficiency Of Obligation To Give

    § 3051 Conditions To Rescind Obligation To Give; Obligations Of Doing Or Not Doing

    § 3052 Right To Rescind Mutual Obligations

    Subchapter II Obligations With Definite Periods

    § 3061 Fulfillment Fixed For Day Certain

    § 3062 Advance Payments

    § 3063 Benefit Of Period Fixed In Obligations

    § 3064 Duration Of Period Fixed By Courts

    § 3065 Loss Of Benefit Of Period By Debtor

    § 3066 Computation Of Days

    Subchapter III Alternative Obligations

    § 3081 Full Compliance With One Alternative Required

    § 3082 When Option Pertains To Debtor; Impossible Or Illicit Prestations

    § 3083 When Election Effective

    § 3084 Loss Of Option

    § 3085 Indemnity When All Alternatives Become Impossible

    § 3086 Rules Governing Liability Of Debtor

    Subchapter IV Several And Joint Obligations

    § 3101 Concurrence Of Two Or More Creditors Or Debtors; Joint Obligation

    § 3102 Division Of Credit Or Debt

    § 3103 Effect Of Indivisibility

    § 3104 When Solidarity May Exist

    § 3105 Acts Of Joint Creditors; Action Against Joint Debtors

    § 3106 Payment To Any One Of Joint Creditors

    § 3107 Novation, Compensation, Confusion, Or Remission Of Debt

    § 3108 Actions Against Joint Debtors

    § 3109 Payment By One Of Joint Debtors

    § 3110 Waiver Or Remission Of Part Affecting One Of Joint Debtors

    § 3111 Effect If Thing Perishes Or Prestation Becomes Impossible

    § 3112 Exceptions By Joint Debtor Against Claim Of Creditor Subchapter V Divisible And Indivisible Obligations

    § 3121 Effect Of Divisibility Or Indivisibility

    § 3122 Indivisible Several Obligation

    § 3123 Obligations Considered Indivisible

    § 3124 Obligations Of Doing; Of Not Doing

    Subchapter VI Obligations With A Penal Clause

    § 3131 Effect Of Penal Clause; When Enforceable

    § 3132 Payment Of Penalty

    § 3133 Modification Of Penalty

    § 3134 Nullity Of Penal Clause; Of Principal Obligation Chapter 247 Extinction Of Obligations

    Preliminary Subchapter. General Provisions

    § 3151 How Obligations Extinguished

    Subchapter I Payment

    § 3161 When Debt Considered Paid

    § 3162 Who May Make Payment; Recovery From Debtor

    § 3163 Payment In Name Of Debtor Without His Knowledge

    § 3164 Payment By Person Without Free Disposal Of Thing Due; Liability Of Creditor

    § 3165 Acceptance Of Prestation Or Services Of Third Party

    § 3166 To Whom Payment Made

    § 3167 Payment To Incapacitated Person; To Third Person

    § 3168 Payment In Good Faith To Possessor Of Credit

    § 3169 Payment After Order To Retain Debt

    § 3170 Substitution Of Thing Or Prestation

    § 3171 Quality Of Unspecified Or Generic Thing

    § 3172 Expenses Of Payment

    § 3173 Partial Payment

    § 3174 Payment Of Debts Of Money

    § 3175 Place Of Payment

    § 3176 Application Of Payments -- Declaration Of Debtor

    § 3177 -- Interest Bearing Debt

    § 3178 -- Most Onerous Debt; Pro Rata

    § 3179 Payment By Assignment Of Property

    § 3180 Tender Of Payment And Consignation

    § 3181 -- Notice Of Consignation Required

    § 3182 -- How Consignation Made

    § 3183 -- Expenses Of Consignation

    § 3184 -- Cancellation Of Obligation; Withdrawal Of Consignation

    § 3185 -- Consent By Creditor To Withdrawal

    Subchapter II Loss Of Thing Due

    § 3191 When Loss Extinguishes Obligation

    § 3192 Presumption Of Loss By Fault Of Debtor

    § 3193 Impossibility Of Prestation Releases Debtor

    § 3194 Debt Arising From Crime Or Misdemeanor

    § 3195 Actions By Creditor After Extinction Of Obligation By Loss

    Subchapter III Remission Of Debts

    § 3201 Express Or Implied Remission; Provisions Governing

    § 3202 Surrender Of Private Instrument Proving Credit

    § 3203 -- Presumption From Possession By Debtor

    § 3204 Remission Of Principal Debt; Of Accessory Obligations

    § 3205 Accessory Obligation Of A Pledge

    Subchapter IV Confusion Of Rights

    § 3211 Merger Of Creditor And Debtor In Same Person

    § 3212 When Confusion Benefits Sureties

    § 3213 Effect Of Confusion On Debts In Severalty

    Subchapter V Compensation

    § 3221 When Compensation Takes Place

    § 3222 Requisites

    § 3223 Compensation In Favor Of Surety

    § 3224 Assignment Of Rights

    § 3225 Debts Payable In Different Places

    § 3226 Debts Arising From Deposits; Support

    § 3227 Order Of Compensation Among Several Debts

    § 3228 Effect Of Compensation

    Subchapter VI Novation

    § 3241 Modification Of Obligations

    § 3242 Extinction Of One Obligation By Another

    § 3243 Novation Without Knowledge Of Original Debtor; Consent Of Creditor

    § 3244 Insolvency Of New Debtor

    § 3245 Effect Of Novation Upon Accessory Obligation

    § 3246 Nullity Of Original Obligation

    § 3247 Subrogation Of Third Person In Rights Of Creditor

    § 3248 When Subrogation Presumed

    § 3249 Subrogation By Debtor Without Consent Of Creditor

    § 3250 Subrogation Transfers Rights With Credit

    § 3251 Preference To Person Subrogated By Partial Payment Chapter 249 Proof Of Obligations

    Preliminary Subchapter. General Provisions

    § 3261 Burden Of Proof Of Obligations And Their Extinction

    § 3262 Methods Of Proof

    Subchapter I Public And Private Instruments

    § 3271 Public Instruments -- Definition

    § 3272 -- Instruments In Which Notary Public Takes Part

    § 3273 -- Evidence Of Public Instruments

    § 3274 -- Effect Against Third Parties

    § 3275 -- Copies Of Public Instruments

    § 3276 -- Evidence When Original, Protocol, And Record Have Disappeared

    § 3277 -- Weight Of Entry In Public Registry

    § 3278 -- Defective Instrument Considered Private Instrument

    § 3279 -- Instrument Acknowledging Agreement Or Contract

    § 3280 Private Instruments -- Force Of Private Instrument Legally Acknowledged

    § 3281 -- Admission Or Denial Of Signature

    § 3282 -- Date Of Private Instrument

    § 3283 -- Force Of Entries, Registries, And Private Papers

    § 3284 -- Notes On Instruments Written Or Signed By Creditor

    § 3285 -- Effect Of Private Instruments Changing Agreements In Public Instruments

    Subchapter II Confession

    § 3291 How Confession Made

    § 3292 Confession Evidence Against Author

    § 3293 Partial Use Of Confession

    § 3294 When Confession Loses Effectiveness

    § 3295 Judicial Confession

    § 3296 Judicial Confession Under Decisory Oath

    § 3297 When Decisory Oath Not Demandable

    § 3298 Weight Of Confession Under Decisory Oath

    § 3299 Extrajudicial Confession

    Subchapter III Personal Inspection By The Judge

    § 3311 Effectiveness Of Personal Inspection

    § 3312 Weight In Decision Of Another Judge

    Subchapter IV Expert Evidence

    § 3321 Use Of Expert Evidence

    § 3322 Value And Form

    Subchapter V Evidence Of Witnesses

    § 3331 Admissibility Of Evidence Of Witnesses

    § 3332 Qualifications Of Witnesses

    § 3333 Natural Incapacity

    § 3334 Probative Force Of Depositions Of Witnesses

    Subchapter VI Presumptions

    § 3341 Admissibility Of Presumptions

    § 3342 Effect Of Presumptions Established By Law

    § 3343 Destruction Of Presumptions; Res Judicata

    § 3344 Presumptions Not Established By Law

    Part II Contracts

    Chapter 253 General Provisions

    § 3371 When Contract Exists

    § 3372 Permissible Clauses And Conditions

    § 3373 Validity And Fulfilment

    § 3374 Contracts Valid As To Parties And Heirs; Stipulation In Favor Of Third Person

    § 3375 How Contracts Perfected

    § 3376 Contract In Name Of Another

    § 3377 Oaths Not Admissible

    Chapter 255 Requisites For Validity Of Contracts

    Preliminary Subchapter. General Provisions

    § 3391 Requisites Of Contract

    Subchapter I Consent

    § 3401 How Consent Shown; Acceptance By Letter

    § 3402 Who Cannot Give Consent

    § 3403 Modification Of Incapacity

    § 3404 When Consent Void

    § 3405 Error Invalidating Consent

    § 3406 Violence And Intimidation

    § 3407 Violence Or Intimidation By Third Person

    § 3408 Deceit

    § 3409 Effect Of Serious Or Incidental Deceit

    Subchapter II Objects Of Contracts

    § 3421 What May Be Objects Of Contracts

    § 3422 Impossible Things Or Services

    § 3423 Object Must Be Determined Thing

    Subchapter III Consideration Of Contracts

    § 3431 Sufficiency Of Consideration

    § 3432 Contracts Without Consideration; Illicit Consideration

    § 3433 Statement Of False Consideration

    § 3434 Presumption As To Consideration

    Chapter 257 Effectiveness Of Contracts

    § 3451 When Contracts Binding

    § 3452 Compelling Execution Of Instrument

    § 3453 Contracts Which Must Appear In Public Instrument; Contracts Which Must Be In Writing

    Chapter 259 Interpretation Of Contracts

    § 3471 Literal Sense To Be Observed; When Intention Prevails

    § 3472 Determination Of Intention

    § 3473 Construction Of Terms Of Contract

    § 3474 Stipulation With Different Meanings

    § 3475 Stipulations Interpreted In Relation To One Another

    § 3476 Words With Different Meanings

    § 3477 Uses Or Customs Of Country

    § 3478 Interpretation Against Party Causing Obscurity

    § 3479 Decision As To Doubts; When Doubts Void Contract Chapter 261 Rescission Of Contracts

    § 3491 When Contracts Can Be Rescinded

    § 3492 Contracts Subject To Rescission

    § 3493 Payments By Insolvent Debtor

    § 3494 Rescission Of Contracts For Lesion

    § 3495 Action For Rescission

    § 3496 Return Of Objects Of Contract; Possession By Third Persons; Indemnity

    § 3497 Contract In Representation Of Absentee With Judicial Authorization

    § 3498 Contracts Presumed In Fraud Of Creditors

    § 3499 Indemnity To Creditors By Person Acquiring In Bad Faith

    § 3500 Prescription Of Action For Rescission

    Chapter 263 Nullity Of Contracts

    § 3511 When Contracts May Be Annulled

    § 3512 Prescription Of Action For Nullity

    § 3513 Who May Bring Action For Nullity

    § 3514 Restoration Of Objects Of Contract -- Generally

    § 3515 -- Incapacity Of Party

    § 3516 Restoriation Of Objects Of Contract -- Illegality Constituting Crime Or Misdemeanor

    § 3517 -- Illicit Consideration Not Crime Or Misdemeanor

    § 3518 Loss Of Thing Ordered Returned

    § 3519 Failure Of Party To Return Thing

    § 3520 Extinction Of Action For Nullity When Contract Confirmed

    § 3521 Contracts Which Can Be Confirmed

    § 3522 Express Or Implied Confirmation

    § 3523 When Consent Of Parties Not Required

    § 3524 Confirmation Purges Contract Of Defects

    § 3525 When Action For Nullity Extinguished By Loss Of Thing Part III Contracts Relating To Property By Reason Of Marriage Chapter 267 General Provisions

    § 3551 Contracts As To Conjugal Partnership; Absence Of Contract

    § 3552 Stipulations Forbidden

    § 3553 Void Stipulations

    § 3554 Marriage Contracts Of Minors

    § 3555 Changes In Marriage Contracts; Attendance Of Parties

    § 3556 Changes After Marriage Forbidden

    § 3557 Public Instrument Required; Exceptions

    § 3558 Modifications Affecting Third Persons

    § 3559 Marriage Contract By Incapacitated Person

    § 3560 Contract When Property Not Real Estate

    § 3561 Law Governing Marriage In Foreign Country With Foreigners

    § 3562 Nullity Of Contract If Marriage Does Not Take Place Chapter 269 Gifts By Reason Of Marriage

    § 3581 Gifts By Reason Of Marriage Defined

    § 3582 Provisions Governing

    § 3583 Bestowal And Receipt Of Gifts By Minors

    § 3584 Acceptance Not Required

    § 3585 Amount Of Gifts By Affianced Persons

    § 3586 Gifts Must Be Freed From Mortgages And Charges

    § 3587 Revocation Of Gifts By Reason Of Marriage

    § 3588 Nullity Of Gifts During Marriage

    § 3589 Gifts To Children Of Spouse

    Chapter 271 Dowry

    § 3601 - 3607 Repealed. Act June 2, 1976, No. 106, P. 306, Eff. June 2, 1976.

    Chapter 273 Conjugal Partnership

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 3621 Conjugal Partnership; Ownership Of Earnings And Profits

    § 3622 Beginning Of Partnership

    § 3623 Renunciation

    § 3624 Rules Governing

    Subchapter II Property Belonging To Each Spouse

    § 3631 Separate Property Of Each Spouse

    § 3632 Credit Or Pension For Life

    Subchapter III Property Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3641 Property Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3642 Installments Of Sum Belonging To One Spouse

    § 3643 Usufruct Or Pension

    § 3644 Useful Expenses; Buildings

    § 3645 Cattle

    § 3646 Earnings From Gambling Or Other Causes Exempt From Restitution

    § 3647 Property Of Marriage Considered Partnership Property Subchapter IV Charges And Obligations Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3661 Obligations Chargeable To Community Property

    § 3662 Gifts To Children For Establishment Or Profession

    § 3663 Debts Contracted Before Marriage; Fines

    § 3664 Amounts Lost In Games

    Subchapter V Administration Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3671 Repealed. Act May 21, 1976, No. 51, P. 134, @ 2, Eff. May 21, 1976.

    § 3672 Consent Of Both Spouses

    § 3673 Disposition By Will

    Subchapter VI Dissolution Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3681 When Partnership Terminates

    Subchapter VII Liquidation Of Property Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3691 Inventory Of Property

    § 3692 Property Included In Inventory; Collation

    § 3693 Conjugal Couch; Clothing

    § 3694 Capital Of Husband And Wife

    § 3695 Assets Of Conjugal Partnership

    § 3696 Payment Of Losses Or Deterioration

    § 3697 Division Of Remainder

    § 3698 Mourning Apparel Of Widow

    § 3699 Rules Governing Inventory, Appraisal, And Sale Of Property

    § 3700 Support Of Surviving Spouse And Children

    § 3701 Liquidation Of Partnership Property Of Two Or More Marriages Contracted By Same Person

    Chapter 275 Separation Of Property Of Spouses

    § 3711 When Separation Of Property Takes Place

    § 3712 Grounds For Separation Of Property

    § 3713 Dissolution Of Conjugal Partnership; Mutual Support

    § 3714 Entry And Record Of Suit For Separation Of Property And Final Judgment

    § 3715 Prior Rights Of Creditors Not Prejudiced

    § 3716 Termination Of Separation

    § 3717 Repealed. Act May 21, 1976, No. 51, P. 134, @ 2, Eff. May 21, 1976.

    Part IV Contracts Of Purchase And Sale

    Chapter 279 Nature And Form Of Contract

    § 3741 Contract Of Purchase And Sale Defined

    § 3742 Nature Of Contract When Price Partly In Money; Barter

    § 3743 When Price Considered Fixed

    § 3744 Price Of Securities, Grains, Liquids, Etc.

    § 3745 One Party Cannot Determine Price

    § 3746 When Sale Perfected And Binding

    § 3747 Effect Of Promise To Sell Or Buy

    § 3748 Injury To Or Profit Of Thing Sold

    § 3749 Sales Subject To Approval Or Trial

    § 3750 Rescission Of Contract When Earnest Money Or Pledge Given

    § 3751 Expense Of Execution Of Instrument And Copies

    § 3752 Forcible Alienation For Public Utility

    Chapter 281 Capacity To Purchase Or Sell

    § 3771 Who May Execute Contract

    § 3772 Mutual Sales Between Husband And Wife

    § 3773 Persons Who Cannot Acquire By Purchase

    Chapter 283 Effects Of Contract Of Purchase And Sale When Thing Sold Has Been Lost

    § 3791 Loss Of Thing Sold; Partial Loss

    Chapter 285 Obligations Of Vendor

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 3801 Delivery And Warranty

    Subchapter II Delivery Of Thing Sold

    § 3811 When Thing Considered Delivered; Execution Of Instrument

    § 3812 Delivery Of Personal Property

    § 3813 Delivery Of Incorporeal Things

    § 3814 Cost Of Delivery

    § 3815 Delivery Before Payment Of Price

    § 3816 Insolvency Of Vendee

    § 3817 Condition In Which Delivered; Fruits

    § 3818 Obligation To Deliver All That Is Stated In Contract; Real Property Of Less Area Or Different Character

    § 3819 Real Property Of Greater Area

    § 3820 Real Property Sold For Fixed Price; Two Or More Estates

    § 3821 Prescription Of Actions

    § 3822 Sale To Different Vendees

    Subchapter III Warranty

    § 3831 Warranty Generally

    § 3832 Warranty In Case Of Eviction -- When Eviction Takes Place; Liability Of Vendor

    § 3833 -- Exemption Of Vendor From Liability Void

    § 3834 -- Renunciation Of Warranty By Vendee

    § 3835 -- Rights Of Vendee Upon Eviction

    § 3836 -- Rights Of Vendee Upon Partial Loss Through Eviction

    § 3837 -- Warranty Demandable Only After Final Judgment

    § 3838 -- Notice To Vendor Of Suit For Eviction

    § 3839 -- Time For Notice And Answer

    § 3840 -- Undisclosed Burden Or Easement

    § 3841 Warranty Against Hidden Defects Or Burdens -- Hidden And Patent Defects

    § 3842 -- Defects Unknown To Vendor

    § 3843 -- Option Between Rescission Or Reduction Of Price; Damages

    § 3844 -- Loss On Account Of Hidden Faults

    § 3845 -- Loss By Accident Or Fault Of Vendee

    § 3846 -- Liability For Losses And Damages In Judicial Sales

    § 3846a -- Bona Fide Purchaser

    § 3847 -- Prescription Of Actions

    § 3848 -- Redhibitory Vices When Animals Sold Together

    § 3849 -- Redhibitory Vices In Things Sold Together

    § 3850 -- Animals Sold At Auction, Etc.

    § 3851 -- Diseased Or Useless Animals

    § 3852 -- When Vice Of Animals Redhibitory; Liability Of Veterinarian

    § 3853 -- Time For Instituting Redhibitory Action

    § 3854 -- Death Of Animal Within Three Days

    § 3855 -- Return Of Animal Upon Rescission Of Sale

    § 3856 -- Option Of Vendee In Sale Of Animals With Redhibitory Vices

    Chapter 287 Obligations Of Vendee

    § 3871 Time And Place Of Payment Of Price

    § 3872 Interest

    § 3873 Suspension Of Payment When Vendee Disturbed In Possession, Etc.

    § 3874 Right Of Vendor Who Fears Loss Of Real Property

    § 3875 Payment By Vendee After Time Agreed Upon

    § 3876 Rescission Of Sale Of Personal Property For Benefit Of Vendor

    Chapter 289 Rescission Of Sale

    Preliminary Subchapter. General Provisions

    § 3891 Causes For Rescission

    Subchapter I Conventional Redemption

    § 3901 When Conventional Redemption Takes Place

    § 3902 Duration Of Right

    § 3903 When Vendee Acquires Ownership

    § 3904 Action Against Subsequent Possessors

    § 3905 Vendee Substitutes Vendor

    § 3906 Conventional Redemption By Creditors Of Vendor

    § 3907 When Vendee Can Oblige Vendor To Redeem Entire Estate If Part Only Subject To Resale

    § 3908 Sale Of Undivided Estate Under Condition Of Redemption

    § 3909 Vendee Not Forced To Partial Redemption

    § 3910 Redemption By Co-Owner Of Undivided Estate

    § 3911 Redemption From Heirs Of Vendee

    § 3912 Sums Payable By Vendor In Case Of Redemption; Price Set If Known; Bond

    § 3913 Disposition Of Fruits

    § 3914 Charges, Mortgages, And Lease Contracts

    § 3915 When Sale On Reversion Constitutes Loan Guaranteed By Mortgage

    Subchapter II Legal Redemption

    § 3921 Legal Redemption Defined

    § 3922 Redemption By Co-Owner Of Thing Held In Common

    § 3923 Owners Of Adjacent Lands

    § 3924 Time For Exercise Of Right; Redemption Of Co-Owners Excludes Adjacent Owners

    § 3925 Application Of Other Provisions; Redemption Sought By Joint Owners

    Chapter 291 Transmission Of Credits And Other Incorporeal Rights

    § 3941 Effect Of Assignment Of Credits, Etc., Against Third Person

    § 3942 Payment By Debtor Before Knowledge Of Assignment

    § 3942a Assignment Not To Prejudice Rights

    § 3943 Assignment Of Credit Includes Accessory Rights

    § 3944 Liability Of Vendor Of Credit

    § 3945 -- Duration Of Liability For Solvency Of Debtor

    § 3946 Proof Of Heirship In Sale Of Inheritance

    § 3947 Sale Of Rights, Etc., As A Whole

    § 3948 Payment For Fruits By Vendor

    § 3949 Vendee To Reimburse Vendor For Debts And Credits

    § 3950 Right Of Debtor To Extinguish Litigated Credit

    § 3951 -- Exceptions

    Chapter 293 General Provisions

    § 3961 Application Of Mortgage Law

    Part V Exchange

    Chapter 297 Contracts Of Exchange

    § 3981 Exchange Defined

    § 3982 Right Of Party Proving Thing Not Property Of Person Giving It

    § 3983 Loss By Eviction Of Thing Received In Exchange

    § 3984 Other Provisions Governing Exchange

    Part VI Contracts Of Lease

    Chapter 301 General Provisions

    § 4011 Subjects Of Lease

    § 4012 Lease Of Things

    § 4013 Lease Of Works Or Services

    § 4014 Perishable Things Not Object Of Lease

    Chapter 303 Leases Of Rural And Town Property

    Subchapter I General Provisions

    § 4031 Lessor And Lessee Defined

    § 4032 Lack Of Evidence Of Price Agreed Upon

    § 4033 Duration Of Lease By Father, Guardian, Or Administrator

    § 4034 Unrecorded Lease Of Real Property Not Effective As To Third Persons

    § 4035 Right Of Lessee To Sublet

    § 4036 Obligations Of Subtenant -- Use And Preservation

    § 4037 -- Payment Of Price Of Sublease

    § 4038 Warranty; Reduction Upon Return Of Price

    Subchapter II Rights And Obligations Of Lessor And Lessee

    § 4051 Obligations Of Lessor

    § 4052 Obligations Of Lessee

    § 4053 Rescission Of Contract; Indemnity

    § 4054 Change Of Form Of Thing Leased

    § 4055 Urgent Repairs

    § 4056 Notice By Lessee Of Usurpation, Injurious Alterations, And Necessity For Repairs

    § 4057 Trespass By Third Persons

    § 4058 Return Of Estate At Expiration Of Lease

    § 4059 Presumption Of Condition At Time Of Lease

    § 4060 Liability Of Lessee For Deterioration Or Loss

    § 4061 Impairment Caused By Members Of Lessee's Household

    § 4062 Expiration Of Lease Made For Specified Time

    § 4063 When New Lease Implied

    § 4064 Obligations Contracted By Third Persons In Case Of Implied Renewal

    § 4065 Loss Of Thing Leased; Noncompliance With Stipulations

    § 4066 Causes For Dispossession Of Lessee By Lessor

    § 4067 Periods To Which Lessee Entitled

    § 4068 Termination Of Lease By Purchaser

    § 4069 -- Purchase With Agreement Of Redemption

    § 4070 Rights Of Lessee As To Useful And Voluntary Improvements

    § 4071 Place And Time Of Payment Of Rent

    Subchapter III Special Provisions For Leases Of Rural Property

    § 4081 Reduction Of Rent -- Sterility Of Land; Loss Of Fruits Through Fortuitous Events

    § 4082 -- Loss Of Fruits After Separation From Roots Or Trunks

    § 4083 Term Of Lease Of Rural Estate When Duration Not Fixed; Arable Lands

    § 4084 Rights Of Incoming And Outgoing Lessees

    § 4085 Leases For Partnerships Of Arable Land, Breeding Cattle, Etc.

    Subchapter IV Special Provisions For Lease Of Town Property

    § 4091 Repairs Of Town Property

    § 4092 Duration Of Lease If Term Not Fixed

    § 4093 Lease Of Furniture

    Chapter 305 Hiring Of Work And Services

    Subchapter I Professional Services, And Services Of Paid Servants And Laborers

    § 4111 Period Of Contract For Services; Remuneration

    § 4112 Domestic Servant Leaving Or Dismissed Before Expiration Of Term

    § 4113 Special Laws And Regulations

    § 4114 Field Hands, Mechanics, Artisans, And Other Laborers

    § 4115 -- Dispossession Of Tools And Buildings

    Subchapter II Works At Price Agreed Upon Or For Lump Sum

    § 4121 Contract For Work And Materials

    § 4122 Destruction Of Work Before Delivery

    § 4123 -- When Contractor Cannot Demand Payment

    § 4124 Liability Of Contractor And Architect For Collapse Of Building

    § 4125 Work By Piece Or Measure

    § 4126 Increase In Price Of Construction

    § 4127 Discontinuance Of Work By Owner

    § 4128 Death Of Contractor; Inability To Finish Work For Other Causes

    § 4129 Liability Of Contractor For Work Of Employees

    § 4130 Action Against Owner By Persons Furnishing Labor And Materials For Work By Contractor

    § 4131 Approval Of Work

    § 4132 Payment Upon Delivery

    § 4133 Retention Of Work As Pledge For Payment

    Subchapter III Transportation By Land And Water Of Persons And Things

    § 4141 Obligations Of Carriers Of Goods As To Care And Preservation

    § 4142 Liability For Loss Or Damage

    § 4143 Special Laws And Regulations

    Part VII Annuities (Censos) N1

    Chapter 309 General Provisions

    § 4171 Annuity Defined

    § 4172 Emphyteutic Annuity

    § 4173 Transferable Or Consignative

    § 4174 Reservative Or Set Apart

    § 4175 Term Of Annuity; Redemption

    § 4176 Notice Of Redemption

    § 4177 Partial Redemption; Against Will Of Annuitant

    § 4178 Redemption Of Annuities Constituted Before Promulgation Of Civil Code Of 1889

    § 4179 Expenses Of Redemption

    § 4180 Determination Of Income Or Pension Of Annuities

    § 4181 When Pensions Payable

    § 4182 Place Of Payment

    § 4183 Annuitant Can Require Memorandum Of Payment

    § 4184 Conveyance Of Estates Charged With Annuities And Right To Receive Income

    § 4185 Division Of Estate

    § 4186 Award Of Estate To Several Heirs

    § 4187 Prescription Of Principal And Income

    § 4188 Presumption Of Payment

    § 4189 Taxes And Other Charges

    § 4190 Real And Personal Actions By Annuitant

    § 4191 Sterility Of Estate Or Loss Of Fruits

    § 4192 Extinction Of Annuity Upon Destruction Of Estate

    § 4193 Application Of Insurance To Payment Of Principal And Income

    § 4194 Taking Of Estate By Eminent Domain

    Chapter 311 Emphyteutic Annuities

    Subchapter I Provisions Referring To Emphyteusis

    § 4211 Establishment Of Emphyteutic Annuity

    § 4212 Value Of Estate And Income Must Be Fixed

    § 4213 Fixed Amount Or Aliquot Part Of Fruits

    § 4214 Provisions In Case Of Eminent Domain

    § 4215 Right To Products, Accessions, Treasure, And Mines

    § 4216 Disposition Of Emphyteutic Estate

    § 4217 Easements Or Charges Diminishing Fruits

    § 4218 Gift Or Exchange Of Estate

    § 4219 Mutual Rights Of Preemption And Redemption

    § 4220 Notice Of Intention To Alienate Estate

    § 4221 Right Of Redemption If Right Of Preemption Not Exercised

    § 4222 Time For Redemption After Alienation Without Notice

    § 4223 Preemption And Redemption In Judicial Sales

    § 4224 Alienation Of Several Estates Charged With Same Annuity

    § 4225 Right Of Redemption Of Owners Pro Indiviso

    § 4226 When Emphyteuticary Disturbed In Right May Claim Indemnity

    § 4227 Payment Of Laudemio To Legal Owner

    § 4228 Obligation To Pay Laudemio

    § 4229 Prescription Of Action For Laudemio

    § 4230 Acknowledgment Of Right Of Legal Owner

    § 4231 Forfeiture And Restitution Of Estate

    § 4232 Demand For Payment Prior To Forfeiture

    § 4233 Redemption After Forfeiture

    § 4234 Redemption Of Emphyteusis

    § 4235 Payments For Improvements Or Deterioration Upon Forfeiture Or Rescission

    § 4236 Reversion Of Estate To Legal Owner

    § 4237 Sub-Emphyteusis Invalid

    Subchapter II Other Contracts Analogous To That Of Emphyteusis

    § 4251 Provisions Governing Analogous Charges

    Chapter 313 Transferable Annuities (Censos Consignativos)

    § 4261 Determination Of Pension Payable In Fruits

    § 4262 Redemption Of Transferable Annuity

    § 4263 Right Of Annuitant When Estate Subject To Real Action

    § 4264 Other Cases In Which Value Of Estate Is Insufficient Chapter 315 Reservative Annuities

    § 4281 Appraisal Of Estate Required For Reservative Annuities

    § 4282 Redemption

    § 4283 Determination Of Pension Payable In Fruits

    § 4284 Redemption Or Abandonment By Debtor

    Part VIII Partnership

    Chapter 319 General Provisions

    § 4311 Partnership Defined

    § 4312 Objects And Interests; Profits On Dissolution Of Illicit Partnership

    § 4313 Establishment Of Civil Partnerships

    § 4314 Inventory Of Real Property Required For Articles Of Copartnership

    § 4315 Personality Of Partnerships Whose Articles Are Secret

    § 4316 Forms Of Civil Partnerships

    § 4317 General Or Particular Partnerships

    § 4318 Forms Of General Partnerships

    § 4319 General Partnerships Of Present Property

    § 4320 -- Property And Profits

    § 4321 General Partnerships Of Profits

    § 4322 Articles Of General Partnership Not Specifying Nature

    § 4323 Persons Disqualified To Contract General Partnership

    § 4324 Object Of Particular Partnership

    Chapter 321 Obligations Of Partners

    Subchapter I Obligations Of Partners Among Themselves

    § 4341 When Partnership Begins

    § 4342 Term Of Partnership

    § 4343 Partners Debtors For Contribution

    § 4344 Interest On Debt Of Partner

    § 4345 Indebtedness Of Partner Giving Services

    § 4346 Disposition Of Sums Collected From Debtor Of Partner And Of Partnership

    § 4347 Obligation Of Partner Receiving His Share Of Credit If Debtor Later Becomes Insolvent

    § 4348 Liability Of Partner For Losses And Damages

    § 4349 Risk Of Things Contributed To Partnership

    § 4350 Liability Of Partnership To Partners For Disbursements And Obligations

    § 4351 Losses And Profits -- Distribution; Shares Of Partners

    § 4352 -- Designation Of Shares By Third Person

    § 4353 -- Agreements Excluding Partner

    § 4354 Powers Of Managing Partner

    § 4355 Attributes When Two Or More Partners Entrusted With Management

    § 4356 Agreement Requiring Consent Of All Managing Partners

    § 4357 Rules In Absence Of Agreement As To Form Of Management

    § 4358 Right Of Partner To Associate Another Person In His Share

    Subchapter II Obligations Of Partners With Regard To Third Persons

    § 4371 Liability Of Partnership For Acts Of A Partner

    § 4372 Partners Not Jointly Bound For Debts Of Partnership; Liability For Acts Of Partner In Own Name; Special Partnerships

    § 4373 Preference Of Creditors Of Partnership; Attachment Of Share By Creditors Of Partner

    Chapter 323 Manner Of Dissolving Partnership

    § 4391 How Partnership Dissolved

    § 4392 Loss Of Specific Thing

    § 4393 Extension Of Duration Of Partnership

    § 4394 Extension Before And After Expiration Of Term

    § 4395 Continuation After Death Of Partner

    § 4396 Dissolution By Will Or Withdrawal Of Partner

    § 4397 Withdrawal In Bad Faith; Inopportune Time

    § 4398 When Dissolution Not Demandable

    § 4399 Rules Governing Distribution Among Partners

    Part IX Agency

    Chapter 327 Character, Form, And Kinds Of Agency

    § 4421 Agency Defined

    § 4422 Express Or Implied

    § 4423 Presumption Of Gratuitous Agency Or Of Obligation Of Compensation

    § 4424 General And Special Agency Defined

    § 4425 Agency Stated In General Terms; Express Commission; Power To Compromise

    § 4426 Scope Of Authority Cannot Be Exceeded

    § 4427 -- When Not Considered Exceeded

    § 4428 Emancipated Minor As Agent

    § 4429 Agent Acting In Own Name

    Chapter 329 Obligations Of Agent

    § 4441 Obligation And Liability Upon Acceptance Of Agency; Death Of Principal

    § 4442 Instructions Of Principal To Be Observed

    § 4443 Accounts Of Transactions

    § 4444 Appointment Of Substitute; Liability For His Acts

    § 4445 Action Of Principal Against Substitute

    § 4446 Liability Of Two Or More Agents

    § 4447 Interest Payable By Agent

    § 4448 Personal Liability Of Agent

    § 4449 Liability For Fraud And Negligence

    Chapter 331 Obligations Of Principal

    § 4461 Obligations Contracted By Agent

    § 4462 Advances To And Reimbursement Of Agent

    § 4463 Indemnity For Losses And Damages

    § 4464 Retention Of Things By Agent

    § 4465 Joint Liability Of Two Or More Principals

    Chapter 333 Manner Of Terminating Agency

    § 4481 Termination Of Agency

    § 4482 Revocation By Principal

    § 4483 Effect Of Revocation On Third Persons

    § 4484 Appointment Of New Agent

    § 4485 Withdrawal Of Agent

    § 4486 Time Agent Must Continue As Such

    § 4487 Acts Of Agent After Death Of Principal Or Other Termination Of Agency

    § 4488 Action Of Heirs On Death Of Agent

    Part X Loans

    Chapter 337 General Provisions

    § 4511 Contract Of Loan Defined; Commodatum As Gratuitous; Loan As Gratuitous Or With Interest

    Chapter 339 Commodatum

    Subchapter I Nature Of Commodatum

    § 4521 Rights Of Bailor And Bailee

    § 4522 Transmission Of Obligations And Rights Arising From Commodatum

    Subchapter II Obligations Of Bailee

    § 4531 Ordinary Expenses Of Use And Preservation

    § 4532 Loss Of Thing Loaned

    § 4533 -- When Delivered Under Appraisal

    § 4534 Bailee Not Liable For Wear And Tear Through Use

    § 4535 Retention Of Thing Loaned Forbidden

    § 4536 Joint Liability Of Bailees

    Subchapter III Obligations Of Bailor

    § 4551 Demand For Restitution Of Thing Loaned

    § 4552 -- If Duration Of Commodatum Not Stipulated

    § 4553 Extraordinary Expenses For Preservation

    § 4554 Damages For Which Bailor Responsible

    Chapter 341 Simple Loan

    § 4571 Nature Of Simple Loan

    § 4572 Obligation Of Person Taking Money, Perishable Things, Or Metal On Loan

    § 4573 Interest

    § 4574 Payment Of Interest Without Stipulation

    § 4575 Pawn Shops

    Chapter 343 Fixing Legal Rate Of Interest

    § 4591 Interest Rate In Absence Of Agreement; Limit Of Rate Fixed By Agreement

    § 4592 Prior Contracts, Obligations, And Judgments

    § 4593 Licensed Pawnbrokers, Bottomry And Respondentia Bonds And Contracts

    § 4594 Receipt Of Money Or Goods At Excessive Rate Of Interest; Enforcement Of Contracts

    § 4595 Recovery Of Sums Paid Over Legal Rate Of Interest

    § 4596 Reimbursement Of Or Relinquishment Of Agreement For Illegal Interest

    § 4597 Calculation Of Months

    § 4598 Pleading Of Usury As Separate Defense

    § 4599 Interest Under Prior Contracts

    Part XI Depositum

    Chapter 347 Depositum Generally And Its Different Kinds

    § 4621 Constitution Of Depositum

    § 4622 Constitution Judicially Or Extrajudicially

    Chapter 349 Depositum Properly Speaking

    Subchapter I Nature And Essence Of Contract Of Depositum

    § 4641 Depositum As Gratuitous Contract

    § 4642 Object Must Be Personal Property

    § 4643 Kinds Of Extrajudicial Depositum

    Subchapter II Voluntary Depositum

    § 4651 Voluntary Depositum Defined; By Whom Made

    § 4652 Acceptance Of Depositum Made By Incapacitated Person

    § 4653 Depositum By Qualified Person To Incapacitated Person Subchapter III Obligations To Bailee

    § 4661 Obligation To Keep And Return Thing

    § 4662 Permission Required For Use Of Thing

    § 4663 Effect Of Permission To Use Thing; Presumption And Proof

    § 4664 Delivery Of Thing Closed And Sealed; Determination Of Value

    § 4665 Proceeds, Accretions, And Interest

    § 4666 Proof Of Ownership; Stolen Thing

    § 4667 Rights Of Bailors When Not Joint And Thing Divisible; Joint Bailors Or Indivisible Thing

    § 4668 Loss Of Capacity To Contract By Bailor

    § 4669 Place For Return Of Thing

    § 4670 Return Upon Demand Of Bailor

    § 4671 Return By Bailee

    § 4672 Loss Of Thing Through Force Majeure And Receipt Of Another

    § 4673 Obligation Of Heir Of Bailee Selling Thing Bailed Subchapter IV Obligations Of Bailor

    § 4681 Reimbursement For Expenses And Indemnity For Injuries

    § 4682 Retention Of Thing By Bailee Until Payment

    Subchapter V Necessary Depositum

    § 4691 When Depositum Necessary

    § 4692 Provisions Governing

    § 4693 Depositum Of Goods By Travelers In Inns; Liability Of Keepers

    § 4694 -- Extent Of Liability

    Chapter 351 Sequestration

    § 4711 When Sequestration Takes Place

    § 4712 Property Subject To Sequestration

    § 4713 Release Of Bailee From Charge

    § 4714 Obligations Of Bailee

    § 4715 Provisions Governing Judicial Sequestration

    Part XII Aleatory Contracts Or Those Depending On Chance Chapter 355 General Provisions

    § 4741 Aleatory Contract Defined

    Chapter 359 Gambling And Betting

    § 4771 Rights Of Winner And Loser

    § 4772 -- Application To Betting; Prohibited Bets

    § 4773 Games Contributing To Exercise Of Body

    § 4774 Civil Liability In Game Or Bet Not Prohibited Chapter 361 Life Annuities

    § 4791 Nature Of Life Annuity

    § 4792 Persons Upon Whose Life And In Whose Favor Constituted

    § 4793 Annuity On Life Of Dead Or Dying Person

    § 4794 Default In Payment Of Pensions

    § 4795 Payment Pertaining To Year Of Death

    § 4796 Annuity May Be Exempted From Attachment For Debts

    § 4797 Proof Of Existence Of Person On Whose Life Constituted Part XIII Compromises And Arbitrations

    Chapter 365 Compromises

    § 4821 Compromise Defined

    § 4822 Compromise By Guardian Or Parent As To Rights Of Ward Or Child

    § 4823 Corporations With Judicial Personality

    § 4824 Compromise Of Actions Arising From Crime

    § 4825 Civil Status, Matrimonial Questions, Or Future Support

    § 4826 Scope Of Compromise; Renunciation Of Rights

    § 4827 Compromise Has Authority Of Res Adjudicata

    § 4828 Error, Deceit, Violence, Or Forgery

    § 4829 Discovery Of New Documents

    § 4830 Compromise In Ignorance Of Final Judgment; Of Revocable Judgment

    Chapter 367 Arbitrations

    § 4841 Persons Who May Submit To Arbitrations

    § 4842 Provisions Applicable; Procedure

    Part XIV Security

    Chapter 371 Nature And Extent Of Security

    § 4871 Security Defined

    § 4872 Types Of Security; In Whose Favor Constituted

    § 4873 Valid Obligation Required

    § 4874 Security As Guaranty For Future Debts

    § 4875 Obligation Of Surety Limited To That Of Principal Debtor

    § 4876 Security Not Presumed; Accessories Of Principal Obligation

    § 4877 Qualifications Of Surety; Jurisdiction Of Court

    § 4878 Insolvency Of Surety

    Chapter 373 Effects Of Security

    Subchapter I Effects Of Security Between Surety And Creditor

    § 4891 When Surety Required To Pay Creditor

    § 4892 When Application Of Debtor's Property Cannot Take Place

    § 4893 Demand For Levy Against Principal

    § 4894 Negligence Of Creditor In Making Levy

    § 4895 Citation Of Surety By Creditor

    § 4896 Compromises

    § 4897 Right Of Surety Of A Surety

    § 4898 Liability Of Several Sureties Of One Debtor

    Subchapter II Effects Of Security Between Debtor And Surety

    § 4911 Indemnification Of Surety By Debtor

    § 4912 Subrogation; Compromise

    § 4913 Payment By Surety Without Notice To Debtor

    § 4914 Payment Before Debt Due

    § 4915 Payment By Debtor Without Knowledge Of Payment By Surety

    § 4916 Action By Surety Against Debtor Before Payment Subchapter III Effect Of Security Between Cosureties

    § 4931 Rights Of Surety Paying Debt Against Cosureties

    § 4932 Exceptions Of Cosureties

    § 4933 Liability Of Subsurety Upon Insolvency Of Surety Chapter 375 Extinguishment Of Security

    § 4951 Expiration Of Obligation Of Surety

    § 4952 Merger Of Debtor And Surety By Inheritance

    § 4953 Acceptance Of Property By Creditor

    § 4954 Liberation By Creditor Of One Surety Without Consent Of Others

    § 4955 Extension Granted To Debtor By Creditor

    § 4956 Act Of Creditor Preventing Subrogation

    § 4957 Exceptions Which Surety May Set Up Against Creditor Chapter 377 Legal And Judicial Security

    § 4971 Qualifications Of Legal Or Judicial Sureties

    § 4972 Pledge Or Mortgage In Lieu Of Security

    § 4973 Levy On Property Not Demandable

    Part XV Contracts Of Pledge, Mortgage, And Antichresis Chapter 381 Provisions Common To Pledge And Mortgage

    § 5001 Requisites Of Contracts Of Pledge And Of Mortgage

    § 5002 Additional Requisite

    § 5003 Creditor Cannot Appropriate Or Dispose Of Things

    § 5004 Divisibility Of Pledge And Mortgage; Part Payment

    § 5005 Kinds Of Obligations Secured

    § 5006 Action On Promise To Constitute Pledge Or Mortgage Chapter 383 Pledge

    § 5021 Requisites Of Pledge

    § 5022 Property Which May Be Given In Pledge

    § 5023 Effect Of Pledge Against Third Person

    § 5024 Retention By Creditor Until Payment

    § 5025 Care Of Thing Pledged; Expenses; Loss Or Deterioration

    § 5026 Interest Produced By Thing Pledged

    § 5027 Ownership Of Thing Pledged

    § 5028 Use Of Thing By Creditor

    § 5029 Restitution Demandable Only Upon Payment

    § 5030 Alienation Of Pledge By Creditor; Auction

    § 5031 Institutions Loaning Money On Pledge

    Chapter 385 Mortgage

    § 5041 Property Subject To Mortgage

    § 5042 Requisites Of Mortgage; Rights Of Person In Whose Favor Created

    § 5043 Effect Of Mortgage On Property

    § 5044 Scope Of Mortgage

    § 5045 Alienation Of Mortgage Credit

    § 5046 Liability Of Third Possessor Of Property Mortgaged

    § 5047 Application Of Mortgage Law

    § 5048 Agreement In Favor Of Mortgagee Void

    Chapter 387 Antichresis

    § 5061 Antichresis Defined

    § 5062 Liability Of Creditor For Taxes, Charges, And Expenses

    § 5063 Enjoyment Of Real Property By Debtor

    § 5064 Ownership Not Acquired By Creditor

    § 5065 Interest May Be Set Off Against Fruits

    § 5066 Provisions Applicable

    Part XVI Obligations Contracted Without Agreement

    Chapter 391 Quasi Contracts

    Preliminary Subchapter. General Provisions

    § 5091 Quasi Contracts Defined

    Subchapter I Management Of Another's Business

    § 5101 Duration Of Obligation Of Person Voluntarily Taking Charge Without Authority

    § 5102 Diligence Of Officious Manager; Indemnity

    § 5103 Delegation Of Duties; Two Or More Managers

    § 5104 Liability For Fortuitous Events

    § 5105 Ratification Of Management

    § 5106 Liability Of Owner Accepting Advantages Of Administration

    § 5107 Right Of Stranger Supplying Support; Funeral Expenses Subchapter II Collection Of What Is Not Due

    § 5121 Restitution Of Thing Improperly Received

    § 5122 Liability Of Person Accepting Payment In Bad Faith

    § 5123 Liability Of Person Acting In Good Faith

    § 5124 Payment For Improvements And Expenses

    § 5125 Exemption From Obligation Of Restitution

    § 5126 Burden Of Proof Of Payment And Of Error

    § 5127 Presumption Of Error In Payment

    Chapter 393 Obligations Which Arise From Fault Or Negligence

    § 5141 Obligation When Damage Caused By Fault Or Negligence

    § 5142 Liability For Damages Caused By Minor, Incapacitated Person, Employee, Agent, Pupil, Or Apprentice; Liability Of Commonwealth

    § 5143 Recovery Of Amount Paid For Damage Caused By Employee

    § 5144 Damages Caused By Animals

    § 5145 Damages Caused By Game

    § 5146 Collapse Of Building

    § 5147 Other Liabilities Of Owners

    § 5148 Defects In Construction

    § 5149 Things Thrown Or Falling From Houses

    Part Xvii Concurrence And Preference Of Credits

    Chapter 397 General Provisions

    § 5171 Liability Of Debtor For His Obligations

    § 5172 Request For Reduction And Extension Of Time

    § 5173 Bankruptcy Petition

    § 5174 Effect Of Declaration In Bankruptcy; Discharge

    § 5175 Immature Debts Become Due

    § 5176 Debts Cease To Bear Interest

    § 5177 Binding Character Of Settlements With Creditors

    § 5178 Decision Of Majority Binds All Creditors

    § 5179 Effect Of Compliance Or Noncompliance With Settlement

    § 5180 Rights Of Creditors After Termination Of Bankruptcy Chapter 399 Classification Of Credits

    § 5191 How Credits Classified

    § 5192 Credits Preferred -- As To Specified Personal Property Of Debtor

    § 5193 -- As To Certain Real Property And Rights On Realty

    § 5194 -- As To All Other Personal And Real Property

    § 5195 Credits Having No Preference

    Chapter 401 Priority Of Payments Of Credits

    § 5211 Effect Of Preferred Credits As To Certain Personal Property; Priority

    § 5212 Effect Of Preferred Credits As To Certain Real Property Or Rights; Priority

    § 5213 Disposition Of Residue Of Debtor's Estate

    § 5214 Order Of Payment Of Credits Having No Preference, Etc. Part Xviii Prescription

    Chapter 405 General Provisions

    § 5241 Acquisition Of Ownership And Rights; Extinction Of Rights And Actions

    § 5242 Who May Acquire Property Or Rights By Prescription

    § 5243 Extinction Of Rights And Actions By Prescription

    § 5244 Prescription By Coproprietor Or Owner In Common

    § 5245 Effects Of Prescription Upon Inheritance

    § 5246 Renunciation Of Prescription

    § 5247 Things Capable Of Prescription

    § 5248 Creditors And Other Interested Persons May Benefit

    § 5249 Application Of Other Provisions

    § 5250 Prescription Beginning Prior To Code

    Chapter 407 Prescription Of Ownership And Other Property Rights

    § 5261 Possession In Good Faith And Under Proper Title Required

    § 5262 Character Of Possession

    § 5263 Acts Of Possessory Character By License Or Tolerance

    § 5264 Interruption Of Possession Naturally Or Civilly

    § 5265 Natural Interruption

    § 5266 Civil Interruption

    § 5267 -- When Judicial Citation Considered Not Made

    § 5268 -- Civil Interruption By Judicial Or Notarial Notice

    § 5269 Acknowledgment Interrupts Possession

    § 5270 Recorded Title

    § 5271 Good Faith Defined

    § 5272 -- Other Requirements

    § 5273 Proper Title Defined

    § 5274 True And Valid Title Required

    § 5275 Proper Title Must Be Proven

    § 5276 Term Of Prescription For Personal Property; Rights Of Owner

    § 5277 Personal Property Stolen Or Robbed

    § 5278 Term Of Prescription For Real Property And Rights

    § 5279 -- Persons Considered Absent

    § 5280 Prescription By Possession Without Title Or Good Faith

    § 5281 Computation Of Time

    Chapter 409 Prescription Of Actions

    § 5291 Actions Prescribed By Lapse Of Time

    § 5292 Real Actions As To Personal Property

    § 5293 Real Actions As To Real Property

    § 5294 Mortgage Action; Personal Actions For Which Term Not Fixed

    § 5295 Action To Demand Division Of Inheritance, Division Of Common Thing Or Survey Of Properties

    § 5296 Actions Which Prescribe In Five (5) Years

    § 5297 Actions Which Prescribe In Three (3) Years

    § 5298 Actions Which Prescribe In One (1) Year

    § 5299 Date Prescription Begins -- Actions Not Otherwise Provided For

    § 5300 -- Actions As To Principal With Interest Or Rent And Annuities

    § 5301 -- Obligations Declared In A Judgment

    § 5302 -- Actions As To Accounts

    § 5303 Interruption Of Prescription

    § 5304 Effect Of Interruption On Other Creditors Or Debtors, And Heirs Of Debtor

    § 5305 Effect Of Interruption On Surety