Warren states that he thinks that learning and communication across different levels of temporal and spatial scales is the primary impediment to successful management. We will discuss this concept in depth later in the course. Watch for the same issues in the Everglades and Columbia river basin case studies.
Warren compares NB with fisheries, and Maynard is interested in NB's history. Both of these are discussed in an article Baskerville wrote that compares the eco-resource history of the great lakes with new Brunswick.
The reference is:
This book can be found in our lab and in Lib. West (call #: HD75.6 .S87 1986)
To add to and clarify the history of New Brunswick that was in the text:
New Brunswick was originally inhabited by the Micmac, Abenaki, and Matisect peoples, however the spread of disease and the social chaos following European contact almost completely obliterated these nations. The fur-trading French were the first Europeans to settle what was to become New Brunswick. They were followed by the British, who militarily defeated the French and established the colony of New Brunswick. In the early 1800's when the timber trade began in earnest the population numbered about 25 000 of whom over 90% were of French or British decent. The province's population expanded ten times over the next fifty years as the province developed around it forest industry. The forest industry still dominates the provincial economy, however, unlike in the 1800's, New Brunswick now represents a relatively minor part of Canada and Canada's forestry. New Brunswick's forest industry is smaller than those in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.
People were wondering in the class about the effect of logging on NB's forests:
The forests of New Brunswick have been transformed by two centuries of increasingly extensive logging. This transformation has not been one of deforestation and land conversion, rather the forest remains, but its character has been changed. The spatial distribution of tree species across the landscape has been homogenized, and the relative frequencies of different species have been altered in favour of pulpwood tree species. The size and quality of the trees found in the forest has been reduced, and the diversity of the landscape has been decreased.
Several people seemed to be confused about the forest ownership in New Brunswick. About 50% of New Brunswick forest is publicly owned and managed by the federal and provincial governments. The area controlled by the federal government is small (1%), and is generally not used for forestry as it consists of National Parks and Forestry Canada lands. Provincial land is what is called Crown Land (part of Canada's colonial legacy). To clarify things - Canada is composed of ten provinces and two (soon to be three) territories in the far north. Provinces are roughly equivalent to US states, but compared to both countries federal governments, provinces have relatively more power. Large forestry companies own 21% of NB's forest land, while small companies and individuals own 30%.
Maynard uses the word paradigm a lot in his paper. According to my dictionary a paradigm is an "example or pattern, especially of inflexions of noun, verb". Thomas Kuhn, who is responsible for the present over use of the term, defined paradigm in his book "the structure of scientific revolutions" as standing for: " the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques and so on shared by members of a given community [or] as one sort of element in that constellation, the concrete puzzle-solutions which, employed as models or examples, can replace explicit rules as a basis for the solution of the remaining puzzles of normal science."
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